Zoonotic diseases continue to emerge and threaten both human and animal health. Overcrowded shelters and breeding kennels create the perfect environment for amplified infectious disease transmission among dogs and present a critical opportunity for zoonotic pathogens to emerge and threaten people who work in close contact with dogs. The objectives of this study were to determine if people with occupational contact with dogs were more likely to have antibodies against Brucella canis, canine influenza virus (CIV), and canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) compared to persons with no dog exposure. A seroepidemiological cohort study was completed, for which 306 canineexposed and 101 non-canine exposed study subjects enrolled in the study by providing a serum sample and completing a self-administered questionnaire. Evidence of previous exposure was determined by detecting human antibodies against B. canis, CIV and CRCoV. Potential risk factors for seropositivity were examined. Results suggest the overall seroprevalence for B. canis antibodies among humans was 3.2%, with 13 subjects testing positive for antibodies against B. canis by the rapid slide agglutination test. Several canine-exposed occupations/hobbies not considered in previous studies, including jobs in small breeding kennels and dog show handlers, may be at increased risk for exposure to zoonotic B. canis. Occupational risk factors included exposure to a known B. canis positive dog (adjusted OR=7.6; 95% CI, 1..01-48.7) and not wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) when caring for a whelping dog (adjusted OR=6.0; 95% CI, 1.02-65.0). In addition, survey results indicated 35% of breeders were not performing B. canis testing in their kennels.
|Publisher||University of Iowa|
|Location of Publication||Ames, IA 50011|
|Degree||Doctor of Philosophy|
|University||University of Iowa|