Public-health aspects of salmonella infection
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Gaffky is credited with being the ﬁrst to culture the causative agent of typhoid (S. typhi) in 1884. At that time, it was also known that bacteria similar to S. typhi could cause enteric disease in humans and farm animals. This was conﬁrmed when Salmon and Smith reported the isolation of the bacteria responsible for 'hog cholera' or 'swine fever' in 1885. The name Salmonella was subsequently adopted in honour of Salmon, an American veterinary surgeon. In the early to mid-20th century, there were many pioneering studies into the identiﬁcation and differentiation of Salmonella. The schemes that were developed made use of the fact that, although Salmonella show considerable antigenic diversity, they elicit two principal antibody reactions in infected animals. Thus antibodies are produced against cell-surface or somatic O antigens and ﬂagella or H antigens. In 1929, White developed a typing scheme based on this antigenic variation, which was later modiﬁed by Kauffmann. This work enabled the differentiation of Salmonella into serovars. In the UK, as in many other countries, it is usual to supplement this with phage typing. With common serovars or phage types (PTs), it may be necessary to take identiﬁcation further and include a range of molecular or genotypic typing methods
|Book Title||Salmonella in Domestic Animals.|