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  1. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers

    Contributor(s): Hsin-Yi Weng, Kimberly Ankrom

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline...

  2. A Birth Cohort Analysis to Study Dog Walking in Adolescence Shows No Relationship with Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    Contributor(s): Carri Westgarth, Andrew R. Ness, Calum Mattocks, Robert M. Christley

    Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity...

  3. Canine Detection of the Volatilome: A Review of Implications for Pathogen and Disease Detection

    Contributor(s): Craig Angle, Lowell Paul Waggoner, Arny Ferrando, Pamela Haney, Thomas Passler

    The volatilome is the entire set of volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by an organism. The accumulation of VOC inside and outside of the body reflects the unique metabolic state of an organism. Scientists are developing technologies to non-invasively detect VOC for the purposes of medical...

  4. Assistance Dogs: Historic Patterns and Roles of Dogs Placed by ADI or IGDF Accredited Facilities and by Non-Accredited U.S. Facilities

    Contributor(s): Sandra Walther, Mariko Yamamoto, Abigail Paige Thigpen, Anaissa Garcia, Neil H. Willits, Lynette A. Hart

    Dogs’ roles to support people with disabilities are increasing. Existing U.S. laws and regulations pertaining to the use of dogs for people with disabilities are only minimally enforced. Pushback legislation against some aspects of uses of assistance dogs currently is being passed or...

  5. Prevalence of Canine Obesity, Obesity-Related Metabolic Dysfunction, and Relationship with Owner Obesity in an Obesogenic Region of Spain

    Contributor(s): J. Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Inmaculada Bautista-Castaño, Cristina Peña, Lourdes Suárez, M. Candelaria Juste, Asta Tvarijonaviciute

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of canine obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD) in the obesogenic area in Spain. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among owners of obese pets was also evaluated. In the sample population studied (93...

  6. Application of Survival Analysis and Multistate Modeling to Understand Animal Behavior: Examples from Guide Dogs

    Contributor(s): Lucy Asher, Naomi D. Harvey, Martin Green, Gary C. W. England

    Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioral states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal...

  7. Comparing the Effect of Animal-Rearing Education in Japan with Conventional Animal-Assisted Education

    Contributor(s): Yuka Nakajima

    An increasing number of teachers are introducing animals into their class so that pupils foster cognitive, physiological, and social skills through their interaction with animals. Along with such an educational style termed animal-assisted education (AAE), Japanese formal education has also...

  8. Rabies Vaccination Targets for Stray Dog Populations

    Contributor(s): Tiffany Leung, Stephen A. Davis

    The role of stray dogs in the persistence of domestic dog rabies, and whether removal of such dogs is beneficial, remains contentious issues for control programs seeking to eliminate rabies. While a community might reach the WHO vaccination target of 70% for dogs that can be handled, the stray...

  9. Aging and Veterinary Care of Cats, Dogs, and Horses through the Records of Three University Veterinary Hospitals

    Contributor(s): Bruno Cozzi, Cristina Ballarin, Roberto Mantovani, Ada Rota

    The present article examines over 63,000 medical records belonging to the Veterinary Hospitals of the Universities of Bologna, Torino, and Padova, all in Northern Italy, and relative to dogs (approximately 50,000), cats (approximately 12,000), and companion horses (slightly less than 1,000). The...

  10. Real-Time Detection of a Virus Using Detection Dogs

    Contributor(s): T. Craig Angle, Thomas Passler, Paul L. Waggoner, Terrence D. Fischer, Bart Rogers, Patricia K. Galik, Herris S. Maxwell

    Viral infections are ubiquitous in humans, animals, and plants. Real-time methods to identify viral infections are limited and do not exist for use in harsh or resource-constrained environments. Previous research identified that tissues produce unique volatile organic compounds (VOC) and...

  11. The Role of Dog Population Management in Rabies Elimination—A Review of Current Approaches and Future Opportunities

    Contributor(s): Louise H. Taylor, Ryan M. Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M. Lindenmayer, Douglas C. Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, Louis H. Nel

    Free-roaming dogs and rabies transmission are integrally linked across many low-income countries, and large unmanaged dog populations can be daunting to rabies control program planners. Dog population management (DPM) is a multifaceted concept that aims to improve the health and well-being of...

  12. Tuberculosis and One Health – What is in a Name?

    Contributor(s): Susanna Sternberg Lewerin

    Most control programs for bovine tuberculosis include reporting to both veterinary and public health authorities, and measures to prevent transmission from animals to humans. On the other hand, reporting of human cases to veterinary authorities is rare, unless an animal source is suspected....

  13. Evaluation of Three Hydration Strategies in Detection Dogs Working in a Hot Environment

    Contributor(s): Cynthia M. Otto, Elizabeth Hare, Jess L. Nord, Shannon M. Palermo, Kathleen M. Kelsey, Tracy A. Darling, Kasey Schmidt, Destiny Coleman

    Physical activity in hot environments can increase the risk of heat stress or heat stroke in dogs. Heat tolerance is influenced by acclimatization to the environment, physical fitness, and hydration state. Three common strategies to promote hydration in working dogs are free access to water (W),...

  14. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel

    Contributor(s): Idit Gunther, Tal Raz, Yehonatan Even Zor, Yuval Bachowski, Eyal Klement

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for...

  15. Beyond One Health—Zoological Medicine in the Anthropocene

    Contributor(s): Chris Walzer

    In contrast to some of the well-established core disciplines of veterinary medicine, such as radiology, surgery, and internal medicine, zoological medicine is often perceived as a relatively recent development. However, as early as 1831, local veterinary practitioner Charles Spooner became the...

  16. Effects of Sheltering on Behavior and Fecal Corticosterone Level of Elderly Dogs

    Contributor(s): Katsuji Uetake, Chu Han Yang, Aki Endo, Toshio Tanaka

    In Japan, the human population is aging rapidly, and the abandonment of dogs by the elderly people who have died or been hospitalized becomes a problem. It is hypothesized that elderly dogs have difficulty adapting to the novel circumstances when brought to an animal shelter. Therefore, the...

  17. Feline Obesity in Veterinary Medicine: Insights from a Thematic Analysis of Communication in Practice

    Contributor(s): Alexandra M. Phillips, Jason B. Coe, Melanie J. Rock, Cindy L. Adams

    Feline obesity has become a common disease and important animal welfare issue. Little is known about how, or how often, veterinarians and feline-owning clients are addressing obesity during clinical appointments. The purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize verbal and non-verbal...

  18. Toward Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies: Experiences from Implementing a Large-scale Demonstration Project in Southern Tanzania

    Contributor(s): Emmanuel Abraham Mpolya, Tiziana Lembo, Kennedy Lushasi, Rebecca Mancy, Eberhard M. Mbunda, Selemani Makungu, Matthew Maziku, Lwitiko Sikana, Gurdeep Jaswant, Sunny Townsend, François-Xavier Meslin, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Chanasa Ngeleja, Joel Changalucha, Zacharia Mtema, Maganga Sambo, Geofrey Mchau, Kristyna Rysava, Alphoncina Nanai, Rudovick Kazwala, Sarah Cleaveland, Katie Hampson

    A Rabies Elimination Demonstration Project was implemented in Tanzania from 2010 through to 2015, bringing together government ministries from the health and veterinary sectors, the World Health Organization, and national and international research institutions. Detailed data on mass dog...

  19. Educational Possibilities of Keeping Goats in Elementary Schools in Japan

    Contributor(s): Naoko Koda, Shiho Kutsumi, Toshiya Hirose, Gen Watanabe

    Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study...

  20. Eliminating Dog-Mediated Rabies in Sikkim, India: A 10-Year Pathway to Success for the SARAH Program

    Contributor(s): Helen Byrnes, Andrea Britton, Thinlay Bhutia

    A third of the world rabies burden is in India. The Sikkim Anti-Rabies and Animal Health (SARAH) program is the first state-wide rabies program in India and demonstrates a successful One Health model of dog-mediated rabies elimination. The SARAH program was created in 2006 as a collaboration...