"Subjects-of-a-Life," Entelechy, and Intrinsic Teleology
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Josephine Donovan
This article explores the question of what is a “subject-of-a-life,” Tom Regan’s celebrated term for a living entity to whom, he argued, we humans owe ethical duty. I return to ancient concepts of entelechy and teleological organization, arguing that, stripped of theological...
Reflections on Tom Regan and the Animal Rights Movement That Once Was
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Gary L. Francione
Ethnobiology in One Health
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Marsha B Quinlan, Robert J Quinlan
The new One Health concept is, essentially, the ethnobiology of health, addressing the interrelation of human, animal and environmental health. Incited by 2003 outbreaks of animal-borne SARS and avian influenza, One Health’s multidisciplinary perspective complements growing international...
The impact of atypical early histories on pet or performer chimpanzees
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Hani D. Freeman, Stephen R. Ross
It is widely accepted that an animal’s early history, including but not limited to its rearing history, can have a profound impact on later behavior. In the case of captive animals, many studies have used categorical measures such as mother reared or human reared that do not...
The influence of dog ownership on objective measures of free-living physical activity and sedentary behaviour in community-dwelling older adults: a longitudinal case-controlled study
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Philippa Margaret Dall, Sarah Lesley Helen Ellis, Brian Martin Ellis, P Margaret Grant, Alison Colyer, Nancy Renee Gee, Malcolm Howard Granat, Daniel Simon Mills
Background There is some evidence to suggest that dog ownership may improve physical activity (PA) among older adults, but to date, studies examining this, have either depended on self-report or incomplete datasets due to the type of activity monitor used to record physical activity....
Determinants of the Level of Care Provided for Various Types and Sizes of Dogs in New Providence, The Bahamas
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): William J. Fielding
This paper reports the level of care offered 424 dogs, classified as small dogs, large dogs, pit bulls and potcakes (the colloquial name for the local mongrel) in New Providence, The Bahamas. Levels of care that meet the legal minimum –food water and shelter– as well as care...
Pets, Purity and Pollution: Why Conventional Models of Disease Transmission Do Not Work for Pet Rat Owners
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Charlotte Robin, Elizabeth Perkins, Francine Watkins, Robert Christley
In the United Kingdom, following the emergence of Seoul hantavirus in pet rat owners in 2012, public health authorities tried to communicate the risk of this zoonotic disease, but had limited success. To explore this lack of engagement with health advice, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured...
I Walk My Dog Because It Makes Me Happy: A Qualitative Study to Understand Why Dogs Motivate Walking and Improved Health
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Carri Westgarth, Robert M. Christley, Garry Marvin, Elizabeth Perkins
Dog walking is a popular everyday physical activity. Dog owners are generally more active than non-owners, but some rarely walk with their dog. The strength of the dog–owner relationship is known to be correlated with dog walking, and this qualitative study investigates why. Twenty-six...
Influence of low stress handling during clinical visit on physiological and behavioural indicators in adult dogs: a preliminary study
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Bruno Scalia, Daniela Alberghina, Michele Panzera
Low stress handling techniques or “Fear Free principles” in veterinary clinics are becoming an important research area aimed at improving small animal welfare, considering that the majority of dogs who undergo clinical examinations exhibit fear or anxiety signs. Objective of this...
Judgement bias in goats (Capra hircus): investigating the effects of human grooming
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Alan G. McElligott
Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming) induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of...
An unexpected acoustic indicator of positive emotions in horses
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Mathilde Stomp, Maël Leroux, Marjorie Cellier, Séverine Henry, Alban Lemasson, Martine Hausberger
Indicators of positive emotions are still scarce and many proposed behavioural markers have proven ambiguous. Studies established a link between acoustic signals and emitter’s internal state, but few related to positive emotions and still fewer considered non-vocal sounds. One of them,...
Earliest evidence for equid bit wear in the ancient Near East: The "ass" from Early Bronze Age Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath, Israel
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Haskel J. Greenfield, Itzhaq Shai, Tina L. Greenfield, Elizabeth R. Arnold, Annie Brown, Adi Eliyahu, Aren M. Maeir
Analysis of a sacrificed and interred domestic donkey from an Early Bronze Age (EB) IIIB (c. 2800–2600 BCE) domestic residential neighborhood at Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath, Israel, indicate the presence of bit wear on the Lower Premolar 2 (LPM2). This is the earliest evidence for the use of a...
Human Facial Recognition by Northern Mockingbirds
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Jessica A. Stehlin, Janice Crook-Hill, Brad Bailey
A number of studies have examined the ability of various animal species to recognize individual humans, but only a few have focused on native, non-captive birds. Previous research demonstrated that American Crows learn to recognize individual human faces. Other research indicated that Northern...
Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and exposure to bats in two rural communities in Guatemala
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): David Moran, Patricia Juliao, Danilo Alvarez, Kim A Lindblade, James A Ellison, Amy T Gilbert, Brett Petersen, Charles Rupprecht, Sergio Recuenco
Background Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus, of the genus Lyssavirus. The principal reservoir for rabies in Latin America is the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), which feeds routinely on the blood of cattle, and when livestock are scarce, may prey on...
Validation of a Commercially Available Enzyme ImmunoAssay for the Determination of Oxytocin in Plasma Samples from Seven Domestic Animal Species
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Cecile Bienboire-Frosini, Camille Chabaud, Alessandro Cozzi, Elisa Codecasa, Patrick Pageat
The neurohormone oxytocin (OT) has a broad range of behavioral effects in mammals. It modulates a multitude of social behaviors, e.g., affiliative and sexual interactions. Consequently, the OT role in various animal species is increasingly explored. However, several issues have been raised...
The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Brian J. Greco, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jen N. Hogan, Katherine A. Leighty, Jill Mellen, Georgia J. Mason, Joy A. Mench
Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta...
Animal Bodies, Colonial Subjects: (Re)Locating Animality in Decolonial Thought
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Billy-Ray Belcourt
In this paper, I argue that animal domestication, speciesism, and other modern human-animal interactions in North America are possible because of and through the erasure of Indigenous bodies and the emptying of Indigenous lands for settler-colonial expansion. That is, we cannot address animal...
The effect of human interaction on guinea pig behavior in animal-assisted therapy
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Winnie Gut, Lisa Crump, Jakob Zinsstag, Jan Hattendorf, Karin Hediger
Guinea pigs are included in various animal-assisted interventions (AAIs), but no research has been published to date on behavioral changes in guinea pigs interacting with humans. The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior in guinea pigs during animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and to...
Human-directed behaviour in goats is not affected by short-term positive handling
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Jan Langbein, Annika Krause, Christian Nawroth
In addition to domestication, interactions with humans or task-specific training during ontogeny have been proposed to play a key role in explaining differences in human–animal communication across species. In livestock, even short-term positive interactions with caretakers or other...
Can you spare 15 min? The measurable positive impact of a 15-min petting session on shelter dog well-being
Journal Articles | Contributor(s): Ragen T. S. McGowan, Cynthia Bolte, Hallie R. Barnett, Gerardo Perez-Camargo, François Martin
It is well established that human interaction has positive effects on shelter dogs. This work set out to answer the question: “Does one 15-min petting session make a difference for shelter dogs?” Fifty-five dogs were subject to one 15-min petting session with one of five unfamiliar...