A case study: fecal corticosteroid and behavior as indicators of welfare during relocation of an Asian elephant
Contributor(s):: Laws, N., Ganswindt, A., Heistermann, M., Harris, M., Harris, S., Sherwin, C.
This study was a preliminary investigation of an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in a male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) by investigating changes in behavior and cortisol metabolite excretion associated with a putative stressful event. The study collected...
A comparison of zoo animal behavior in the presence of familiar and unfamiliar people
Contributor(s):: Martin, R. A., Melfi, V.
As recorded in domestic nonhuman animals, regular interactions between animals in zoos and keepers and the resulting relationship formed (human-animal relationship [HAR]) are likely to influence the animals' behaviors with associated welfare consequences. HAR formation requires that zoo animals...
A Comparison of Zoo Animal Behavior in the Presence of Familiar and Unfamiliar People
A survey of elephant husbandry and foot health in North American zoos. (Special Issue: The care and welfare of elephants in AZA institutions.)
Contributor(s):: Lewis, K. D., Shepherdson, D. J., Owens, T. M., Keele, M.
The foot health of elephants in human care is a longstanding concern. In 2001, the AZA Standards for Elephant Management and Care were published recommending husbandry to improve foot health. This article reports the results of a 2006 survey: basic statistics describing facility, husbandry, and...
A survey of foot problems, stereotypic behaviour and floor type in Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) in European zoos
Contributor(s):: Haspeslagh, M., Stevens, J., Groot, E. de, Dewulf, J., Kalmar, I. D., Moons, C.
African elephants ( Loxodonta africana) can detect TNT using olfaction: implications for biosensor application
Contributor(s):: Miller, A. K., Hensman, M. C., Hensman, S., Schultz, K., Reid, P., Shore, M., Brown, J., Furton, K. G., Lee, S.
The impact of war on local wildlife can be devastating, the effects of which are often felt well beyond the terminus of the initial threat. In areas where wildlife experiences unrestricted movement through previously affected zones, residual, unexploded landmines present a significant and...
Are wild animals suited to a travelling circus life?
Contributor(s):: Iossa, G., Soulsbury, C. D., Harris, S.
A comprehensive synopsis of the welfare of captive, wild (ie non-domesticated) animals in travelling circuses is missing. We examined circus animal welfare and, specifically, behaviour, health, living and travelling conditions. We compared the conditions of non-domesticated animals in circuses...
Auditory stimulation as enrichment for zoo-housed Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus )
Contributor(s):: Wells, D. L., Irwin, R. M.
This study explored the effect of auditory stimulation on the behaviour and welfare of four zoo-housed, female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). All animals were exposed, in an ABA design, to two conditions of auditory stimulation: a 'control' (no auditory stimulation), and an 'experimental'...
Behavior of female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in captivity
Contributor(s):: Adams, J., Berg, J. K.
Behavior of picketed circus elephants
Contributor(s):: Friend, T. H.
The behaviour of 14 female Asian (Elephas maximus) and 3 female African (Loxodonta africana) elephants who performed 2 shows each day with a circus that travelled to a new location (40 to 250 km from the previous day's lot) daily, was studied. When not performing or working, the elephants were...
Behavioural reactions of elephants towards a dying and deceased matriarch
Contributor(s):: Douglas-Hamilton, I., Bhalla, S., Wittemyer, G., Vollrath, F.
The extent to which elephants hold behavioural traits in common with human beings is relevant to the ethics of how we treat them. Observations show that elephants, like humans, are concerned with distressed or deceased individuals, and render assistance to the ailing and show a special interest...
Charismatic krill? Size and conservation in the ocean
Contributor(s):: Leane, E., Nicol, S.
The open ocean is an alien place for human beings and for most of history it has been studied using very indirect means. A great deal of what we know about animals that live on land, from ants to elephants, is based on centuries of direct natural history observations of animals alive and in situ....
Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): a factor to consider during welfare assessment
Contributor(s):: Menargues, A., Urios, V., Liminana, R., Mauri, M.
Elevated glucocorticoid levels during an extended time period might be a stress indicator in nonhuman animals. Therefore, knowledge of the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion is very important to correctly interpret data obtained for welfare assessment of animals in captivity through salivary...
Conservation for Whom? Elephant Conservation and Elephant Conservationists in Thailand
Contributor(s):: Suphawat Laohachaiboon
This paper traces the historical development of elephant conservation in Thailand through the exploration of two interrelated state organizations: the Thai Elephant Conservation Center (TECC) and the National Elephant Institute (NEI). By examining their ideological construction, policies and...
Detusking Fence-Breaker Elephants as an Approach in Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation
Contributor(s):: Matthew Mutinda, Geoffrey Chenge, Francis Gakuya, Moses Otiende, Patrick Omondi, Samuel Kasiki, Ramon C. Soriguer, Samer Alasaad
BackgroundHuman-elephant conflict (HEC) is a recurring problem that appears wherever the range of elephants and humans overlap. Different methods including the use of electric fences are used worldwide to mitigate this conflict. Nonetheless, elephants learn quickly that their tusks do not conduct...
Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants
Contributor(s):: Wittemyer, G.
Declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. This is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. Whereas...
Elephant-initiated interactions with humans: individual differences and specific preferences in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana)
Contributor(s):: Rossman, Z. T., C Padfield, D Young, LA Hart
South Africa has seen a recent increase in the number of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) maintained in reserves and parks and managed in free contact, where they may spend a significant amount of time in close proximity to humans. This study investigates how individual elephants choose to...
Elephants in ancient Egypt and Nubia
Contributor(s):: Lobban, R. A., Jr., Liedekerke, V. de
This article examines the presence of elephants in civilizations of the ancient Nile valley, where they were hunted and distributed to Egypt and to the Classical Greco-Roman world for ivory, amusement, and military purposes. The full study of elephants requires diverse multi-disciplinary research...
Elephants in Thailand: Determinants of Health and Welfare in Working Populations
Contributor(s):: Chatkupt, Thomas T., Sollod, Albert E., Sarobol, Sinth
Evaluates the health and welfare conditions of elephants encountered in the working population in Thailand. Overview on the use of elephants in transportation, ceremonies and war; Concern over the elephants' habitat; Factors in determining the type of care and husbandry given to elephants; Need...
Family traditions for mahouts of Asian elephants
Contributor(s):: Hart, L., Sundar
The mahout and elephant relationship is one of the oldest human-animal relationships, possibly beginning as far back as 5,000 years ago. Valued for their assistance in war and work, elephants were trained and managed using methods described in ancient Indian texts. The lifelong job of mahouts...