Genotype rather than non-genetic behavioural transmission determines the temperament of Merino lambs
Contributor(s):: Bickell, S., Poindron, P., Nowak, R., Chadwick, A., Ferguson, D., Blache, D.
Merino ewes have been selected, over 18 generations, for calm (C) or nervous (N) temperament using an arena test and an isolation box test. We investigated the relative contributions of genotype versus the post-partum behaviour of the dam on the temperament of the lambs using a cross-fostering...
Proceedings of the UFAW International Symposium, Darwinian selection, selective breeding and the welfare of animals, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK, 22-23 June 2009
Contributor(s):: Kirkwood, J. K., Weddell, S., Hubrecht, R. C., Wickens, S. M.
The 150th anniversary of the publication of The Origin of Species is a good time to consider how selection can affect welfare - the quality of life. Darwin (1859) quoted Youatt's description of selective breeding: "...the magician's wand, by means of which he may summon into life whatever form...
Reducing the number of animals used in behavioural genetic experiments using chromosome substitution strains
Contributor(s):: Laarakker, M. C., Ohl, F., Lith, H. A. van
Chromosome substitution strains (also called consomic lines or strains) are strains in which a single, full-length chromosome from one inbred strain - the donor strain - has been transferred onto the genetic background of a second inbred strain - the host strain. Based on the results obtained...
The application of Russell and Burch's Three Rs in commercial livestock experimentation
Contributor(s):: Colditz, I. G.
The inclusion of Russell and Burch's Three Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) in guidelines, codes of practice and law reflects their current position as the guiding principles of ethical assessment of research involving animals. This article explores some activities within the...
The effect of breeding schemes on the genetic response of canine hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, behaviour traits and appearance
Contributor(s):: Maki, K., Liinamo, A. E., Groen, A. F., Bijma, P., Ojala, M.
Current dog breeding programmes must be changed if genetic improvement in health and behaviour traits is to be achieved. A computer simulation programme was used to assess the possible genetic improvement in hip dysplasia (HD), elbow dysplasia (ED) and behaviour (BE) traits in a dog population...
Aurochs and potential cross-breeding with domestic cattle in Central Europe in the Eneolithic period; A metric analysis of bones from the archaeological site of Kutna Hora-Denemark (Czech Republic) (vol 43, pg 7, 2008)
Contributor(s):: Kysely, R.
Occupational Histories, Settlements, and Subsistence in Western India: What Bones and Genes can tell us about the Origins and Spread of Pastoralism
Contributor(s):: Patel, Ajita K.
Genetics and the development of social behavior in dogs
Contributor(s):: Scott, J. P.
The puppies used in the experiments lived with their litter-mates from birth until 1 yr. of age, first in large nursery rooms and later in spacious outdoor runs. Behavioural tests were given to animals of 5 different breeds: Basenji, Beagle, Cocker Spaniel, Shetland Sheep Dog, and Wire-haired Fox...
Genetics of behavioural reactivity in sheep: a strategy for combining animal welfare and efficiency of production
Contributor(s):: Boissy, A., Ligout, S., Foulquie, D., Gautier, A., Moreno, C., Delval, E., Francois, D., Bouix, J.
Modern farm practices, such as reduced contact of livestock with humans and increased size of the herd, induce a decrease of animal familiarisation to farmers so that they are more susceptible to be stressed by routine management procedures. In addition, due to the less support by humans, the...