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  1. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Brian J. Greco, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jen N. Hogan, Katherine A. Leighty, Jill Mellen, Georgia J. Mason, Joy A. Mench

    Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta...

  2. Disparities in activity levels and learning ability between Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) and Roborovskii hamster (Phodopus roborovskii)

    | Contributor(s):: Ikeda, H., Nagasawa, M.

    The Djungarian hamster and the Roborovskii hamster belong to the same genus of Phodopus. However, the Djungarian hamster is tame and shows sedative behavior, while Roborovskii hamster is not tame and shows high levels of locomotor activity. Hyperactivity occurs in animals with tameless behavior....

  3. A preliminary study of the effects of individual response to challenge tests and stress induced by humans on learning performance of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa)

    | Contributor(s):: Brajon, S., Laforest, J. P., Schmitt, O., Devillers, N.

    This study investigated whether individual behavioural characteristics of piglets and stress induced by experience with humans can influence learning performance. After weaning, piglets received a chronic experience with humans to modulate their emotional state: rough (ROU), gentle (GEN), or...

  4. Feeding behavior and the effect of photoperiod on the performance and hematological parameters of the pacama catfish ( Lophiosilurus alexandri)

    | Contributor(s):: Kitagawa, A. T., Costa, L. S., Paulino, R. R., Luz, R. K., Rosa, P. V., Guerra-Santos, B., Fortes-Silva, R.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity, the ability to synchronize to a fixed feeding time, and the influence of photoperiod on the growth parameters, feed intake and hematological parameters of a recently introduced fish in freshwater Brazilian...

  5. The effect of presenting forage in multi-layered haynets and at multiple sites on night time budgets of stabled horses

    | Contributor(s):: Ellis, A. D., Redgate, S., Zinchenko, S., Owen, H., Barfoot, C., Harris, P.

    The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of multi-layered haynets and multiple presentation of haynets to increase time spent on feed intake behaviour at night (13 h observation). For preliminary assessment two horses performing the oral stereotypy of crib-biting were included. Six...

  6. Behaviour, wounds, weight loss and adrenal weight of rabbit does as affected by semi-group housing

    | Contributor(s):: Buijs, S., Maertens, L., Hermans, K., Vangeyte, J., Tuyttens, F. A. M.

    Group housing is often assumed to improve the welfare of gregarious species. Whether this is actually the case depends on the advantages (e.g. more opportunity for social and locomotor behaviour) and disadvantages (e.g. increased fighting and wounding) induced by the specific housing type. We...

  7. A multi-institutional assessment of factors influencing locomotion and pacing in captive okapis ( Okapia johnstoni)

    | Contributor(s):: Bennett, C., Torgerson-White, L., Fripp, D., Watters, J., Petric, A.

    The okapi ( Okapia johnstoni), native to the Democratic Republic of Congo, is a large, solitary, and diurnal forest-dwelling ungulate highly sensitive to captive conditions. The captive population demonstrates persistent health problems, reproductive abnormalities, and several potentially...

  8. An observational study of the effects of therapeutic hoof blocks on the locomotion, behavior, and production of healthy dairy cattle

    | Contributor(s):: Cutler, J. H., Shearer, J. K., Kelton, D. F., Cramer, G., Gorden, P. J., Millman, S. T.

    Therapeutic hoof blocks have been recommended for treatment of sole ulcers in dairy cattle; however, they are underutilized in the industry. Twenty Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive a wooden hoof block applied to the left hind leg ( n=5), to the right hind leg ( n=5), or no hoof...

  9. Defining pacing quantitatively: a comparison of gait characteristics between pacing and non-repetitive locomotion in zoo-housed polar bears

    | Contributor(s):: Cless, I. T., Voss-Hoynes, H. A., Ritzmann, R. E., Lukas, K. E.

    Pacing is a commonly investigated behavior in zoo animals, however, little data have been published to support a precise definition of pacing. High speed video of pacing behavior in 11 zoo-housed polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) was compared with goal-oriented locomotion in the same bears....

  10. Animal mobilegalities: the regulation of animal movement in the American city

    | Contributor(s):: Braverman, I.

  11. Effect of feed allowance at pasture on lying behaviour and locomotory ability of dairy cows

    | Contributor(s):: O'Driscoll, K., Lewis, E., Kennedy, E.

    In temperate climates where cows are primarily managed at pasture shortages of grass could result in nutritional deficits for the cow and thus pose a challenge to her welfare. This study investigated the effect of daily herbage allowance (DHA) on dairy cow lying behaviour, locomotory ability, and...

  12. Modification of aviary design reduces incidence of falls, collisions and keel bone damage in laying hens

    | Contributor(s):: Stratmann, A., Frohlich, E. K. F., Gebhardt-Henrich, S. G., Harlander-Matauschek, A., Wurbel, H., Toscano, M. J.

    Non-cage housing systems for laying hens such as aviaries provide greater freedom to perform species-specific behavior and thus are thought to improve welfare of the birds; however, aviaries are associated with a high prevalence of keel bone damage (fractures and deviations), which is a major...

  13. Comparison of locomotion scoring for dairy cows by experienced and inexperienced raters using live or video observation methods

    | Contributor(s):: Schlageter-Tello, A., Bokkers, E. A. M., Koerkamp, P. W. G. G., Hertem, T. van, Viazzi, S., Romanini, C. E. B., Halachmi, I., Bahr, C., Berckmans, D., Lokhorst, K.

    Lameness is considered a major problem in dairy production. Lameness is commonly detected with locomotion scores assigned to cows under farm conditions, but raters are often trained and assessed for reliability and agreement by using video recordings. The aim of this study was to evaluate intra-...

  14. Evaluating the effect of semi-group housing of rabbit does on their offspring's fearfulness: can we use the open-field test?

    | Contributor(s):: Buijs, S., Tuyttens, F. A. M.

    Breeding does are usually housed one doe per cage, but there is an increased interest in (semi-)group housing systems designed to improve welfare. However, there is a lack of information on how such systems actually affect different aspects of rabbit welfare. We aimed to discern differences in...

  15. The relevance of variations in group size and phenotypic appearance on the behaviour and movement patterns of young domestic fowl

    | Contributor(s):: Liste, G., Campderrich, I., Beltran Heredia, I. de, Estevez, I.

    Variations in the group size of laying hens might increase the risk of undesired behaviours with important consequences for the birds' health and welfare. However, larger groups housed at constant densities also translate into larger enclosures that may increase space efficiency, therefore...

  16. What is a canine athlete?

    | Contributor(s):: Zink, M. C., Dyke, J. B. van

    Canine sports medicine and rehabilitation is the newest specialty in veterinary medicine. It encompasses and integrates a variety of fields, including orthopedics, exercise physiology, neurology, cardiology, pulmonology, nutrition, and others. Rehabilitation, which includes conditioning...

  17. A case study employing operant conditioning to reduce stress of capture for red-bellied tamarins ( Saguinus labiatus )

    | Contributor(s):: Owen, Y., Amory, J. R.

    Traditional techniques used to capture New World monkeys, such as net capture, can induce high levels of acute stress detrimental to welfare. Alternatively, training nonhuman animals via operant conditioning to voluntarily participate in husbandry and/or veterinary practices is accepted as a...

  18. Bobcat ( Lynx rufus ) breeding in captivity: the importance of environmental enrichment

    | Contributor(s):: Molla, M. I., Quevedo, M. A., Castro, F.

    Environmental enrichment is an improvement in the biological functioning of nonhuman animals in captivity resulting from modifications to their environment; however, specifying appropriate and practical measures of enrichment is problematic. This study analyzes the behavior of 4 bobcats (Lynx...

  19. Effect of enclosure size and complexity on the behaviors of captive chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes )

    | Contributor(s):: Jensvold, M. L. A., Sanz, C. M., Fouts, R. S., Fouts, D. H.

    Reports describing the implementation of innovative facility designs are important to both the primate caregiving community and policymakers reviewing current U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations. This study documents the changes in behaviour of 5 adult chimpanzees that coincided with...

  20. Aggressiveness and locomotion activity related to hatching time in Matrinxa, Brycon amazonicus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829)

    | Contributor(s):: Souza, E. C. M. de, Silva, J. P. da, Villacorta-Correa, M. A., Carvalho, T. B.

    Since agonistic interaction has been a major obstacle for fish hatchery and represents great economic losses for fish farmers, aggressiveness during the different post-hatching stages of the matrinxa, Brycon amazonicus, is analyzed and compared. Each group of three larvae was observed at six...