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Does environmental enrichment promote recovery from stress in rainbow trout?
Contributor(s):: Pounder, K. C., Mitchell, J. L., Thomson, J. S., Pottinger, T. G., Buckley, J., Sneddon, L. U.
The EU Directive on animal experimentation suggests that all protected animals should have enrichment to improve welfare yet relatively little research has been conducted on the impact of enrichment in fish. Studies employing enrichment in zebrafish have been contradictory and all fish species...
Reconsidering coprophagy as an indicator of negative welfare for captive chimpanzees
Contributor(s):: Hopper, L. M., Freeman, H. D., Ross, S. R.
For captive chimpanzees, 'abnormal' behaviours include behaviours observed only in captivity (i.e. species-atypical behaviours) and those that are performed at higher rates in captivity compared to in the wild. Both types are used as metrics for evaluating captive primates' welfare. However,...
Manifestation of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Australian Merino sheep: observations on altered behaviour and growth
Contributor(s):: Cronin, G. M., Beganovic, D. F., Sutton, A. L., Palmer, D. J., Thomson, P. C., Tammen, I.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder in children. Presently there is no effective treatment and the disorder is lethal. NCL occur in a variety of non-human species including sheep, which are recognised as valuable large animal models for NCL. This...
A welfare assessment scoring system for working equids - a method for identifying at risk populations and for monitoring progress of welfare enhancement strategies (trialed in Egypt)
Contributor(s):: Ali, A. B. A., El-Sayed, M. A., Matoock, M. Y., Fouad, M. A., Heleski, C. R.
There are an estimated 112 million horses, donkeys and mules (i.e., working equids) in developing regions of the world. Though their roles are often fundamental to the well-being of the families they work for, their welfare is often severely compromised due to the limited resources and/or limited...
How does cat behaviour influence the development and implementation of monitoring techniques and lethal control methods for feral cats?
Contributor(s):: Fisher, P., Algar, D., Murphy, E., Johnston, M., Eason, C.
The need for lethal control of feral cats will remain in some contexts and potentially increase in others, alongside an obligation to develop and apply methods that are as cost-effective, humane and target-specific as possible. Drawing on practices particularly used in Australia, New Zealand and...
Automated monitoring of resting in dogs
Contributor(s):: Clarke, N., Fraser, D.
Dogs may be deprived of adequate rest in certain environments such as noisy shelters or kennels. Accelerometers have been used to assess gross activity in dogs, but do not appear to distinguish simple inactivity from the prone, head-down recumbency that typifies sustained rest in the species. We...
The effects of radar on avian behavior: implications for wildlife management at airports
Contributor(s):: Sheridan, E., Randolet, J., DeVault, T. L., Seamans, T. W., Blackwell, B. F., Fernandez-Juricic, E.
Airports often contain foraging, breeding, and roosting resources for wildlife. Airports also have different types of radars to assist with air traffic control, monitoring weather, and tracking wildlife that could become a risk for collision with aircraft. The effect of radar electromagnetic...
Evaluation of a novel rodenticide: acute sub-lethal effects of a methaemoglobin-inducing agent
Contributor(s):: Quy, R. J., Gibson, T. J., Lambert, M. S., Eason, C. T., Gregory, N. G.
In a series of experiments the welfare of para-aminovalerophenone (PAVP) sub-lethally poisoned rats ( Rattus norvegicus) was assessed. The experiments: (i) examined the acute methaemoglobin (MetHb) profile over time; (ii) refined the LD50 estimate for PAVP in adult female rats; (iii) developed...
Effects of catching and transportation versus pre-slaughter handling at the abattoir on the prevalence of wing fractures in broilers
Contributor(s):: Kittelsen, K. E., Granquist, E. G., Vasdal, G., Tolo, E., Moe, R. O.
Fractures occurring in conscious broiler chickens are painful and severely compromise animal welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-slaughter handling procedures on the frequency of wing fractures. Wings were examined for fractures in 11,609 broilers, from 12...
Slow and steady wins the race? No signs of reduced welfare in smaller broiler breeder hens at four weeks of age
Contributor(s):: Lindholm, C., Calais, A., Jonsson, J., Yngwe, N., Berndtson, E., Hult, E., Altimiras, J.
Broiler breeder chickens are commonly reared under strict feed-restriction regimes to reduce obesity-induced health and fertility problems during adult life, and are assumed to experience a reduced welfare due to the resulting hunger. In these conditions, feed competition could influence the...
Robots: Pets or people?
Contributor(s):: Grollman, Daniel H.
Influences of various factors on cows' entrance order into the milking parlour
Contributor(s):: Polikarpus, A., Kaart, T., Mootse, H., Rosa, G. de, Arney, D.
This study investigates the stability of the milking order of cows entering into the milking parlour of a commercial dairy herd, and changes to this order consequent to a change in health status and a change in the membership of the group of cows being milked. In large herds it is difficult for...
Killing of spent laying hens using CO 2 in poultry barns
Contributor(s):: Berg, C., Yngvesson, J., Nimmermark, S., Sandstrom, V., Algers, B.
In Sweden, laying hens are killed using the following methods: (i) traditional slaughter; (ii) on-farm with CO 2 in a mobile container combined with a grinder; or (iii) with CO 2 inside the barn. The number of hens killed using the latter method has increased. During these killings a veterinarian...
A case study of orangutan and siamang behavior within a mixed-species zoo exhibit
Contributor(s):: Pearson, E. L., Davis, J. M., Litchfield, C. A.
This empirical case study assessed the behavior and welfare of 2 orangutans (Pongo abelii) and 2 siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) within a mixed-species zoo exhibit. The study used instantaneous scan-sampling to record behavior, location, and interspecies proximity over 174 hr and...
Bioacoustic monitoring of aggression in group-housed rhesus macaques
Contributor(s):: McCowan, B., Rommeck, I.
Many captive primate facilities house rhesus macaques in multimale-multifemale social groups in large enclosures that simulate the natural social and environmental features characteristic of the species, enhancing their reproductive performance as well as their psychological well-being, yet one...
Use of accelerometers to measure stress levels in shelter dogs
Contributor(s):: Jones, S., Dowling-Guyer, S., Patronek, G. J., Marder, A. R., D'Arpino, S. S., McCobb, E.
Stress can compromise welfare in any confined group of nonhuman animals, including those in shelters. However, an objective and practical method for assessing the stress levels of individual dogs housed in a shelter does not exist. Such a method would be useful for monitoring animal welfare and...
Welfare monitoring schemes: using research to safeguard welfare of animals on the farm
Contributor(s):: Barnett, J. L., Hemsworth, P. H.
There are a number of nonhuman animal welfare monitoring schemes for animals on the farm in Australia and in other countries. Although the majority of such schemes are voluntary rather than legislated, some are nevertheless enforced through a number of customer requirements that industries must...
Number of nearby visitors and noise level affect vigilance in captive koalas
Contributor(s):: Larsen, M. J., Sherwen, S. L., Rault, J. L.
Understanding human-animal interactions is particularly important for institutions that display animals to the public due to the frequent, and sometimes intense, interactions with unfamiliar humans. Past research has shown that visitors can have a negative impact on the welfare of a wide range of...
Behavioral monitoring of big cats involved in 'behind-the-scenes' zoo visitor tours
Contributor(s):: Szokalski, Monika S., Foster, Wendy K., Litchfield, Carla A.
Behavioral reactions relate to adrenal activity and temperament in male clouded leopards ( Neofelis nebulosa)
Contributor(s):: DeCaluwe, H. B., Wielebnowski, N. C., Howard, J., Pelican, K. M., Ottinger, M. A.
Due to strong intra-specific aggression and frequent adverse reactions to changes encountered in the captive setting, clouded leopards ( Neofelis nebulosa) are particularly difficult to manage as a self-sustaining population in zoos. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of behavioral...