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  1. A review of WTO and environmental issues

    Contributor(s):: Stonehouse, D. P.

    Multiple negotiating rounds of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1947 have conferred economic benefits through liberalized international trade. A growing body of evidence also points to linkages between liberalized trade and damage to the...

  2. A survey of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ) and gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla ) in the selectively logged Ngotto Forest, Central African Republic

    Contributor(s):: Hicks, T. C., Fouts, R. S., Fouts, D. H.

    Currently, the timber company Industrie Forestiere du Batalimo is selectively logging the Ngotto Forest in the Central African Republic. The forest is home to a population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and provides the Bofi-speaking people of...

  3. Acute and chronic exposure to ammonia and olfactory acuity for n -butanol in the pig

    Contributor(s):: Jones, J. B., Wathes, C. M., Persaud, K. C., White, R. P., Jones, R. B.

    An associative learning method (using a food reward) was developed to measure pigs' olfactory acuity for n-butanol, a standard odourant in human olfactometry. Six of 8 intact Duroc x Landrace crossbred male pigs were used for the study. The pigs could press two operant paddles but it only...

  4. Agricultural development and associated environmental and ethical issues in South Asia

    Contributor(s):: Khan, M. A., Shah, S. A. A.

    South Asia is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, where despite a slow growth, agriculture remains the backbone of rural economy as it employs one half to over 90 percent of the labor force. Both extensive and intensive policy measures for agriculture development to feed the...

  5. Amounts of pesticides reaching target pests: environmental impacts and ethics

    Contributor(s):: Pimentel, D.

    An examination of published work on arthropod pests, pathogens and weeds of crops indicated that less than 0.1% of pesticides applied for pest control reach their target pests. Thus, more than 99.9% of pesticides used move into the environment where they adversely affect public health and...

  6. An Alternative Approach for Investigating the Carcinogenicity of Indoor Air Pollution: Pets as Sentinels of Environmental Cancer Risk

    Contributor(s):: John A. Bukowski, Daniel Wartenberg

    Traditionally, the cancer risks associated with radon, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and similar indoor residential exposures have been evaluated through either laboratory experiments in rodents or epidemiology studies in people. Laboratory studies have the advantage of being controlled...

  7. Aquaculture and restocking: implications for conservation and welfare. (Special Issue: Conservation and animal welfare.)

    Contributor(s):: Braithwaite, V. A., Salvanes, A. G. V.

    As the harvesting of fish through commercial fisheries becomes both harder and less economically viable, the world is becoming increasingly dependent on aquaculture to provide fish for human consumption. The closely related activity of stock enhancement, whereby large numbers of fish are reared...

  8. Are intensive agricultural practices environmentally and ethically sound?

    Contributor(s):: Lal, R., Miller, F. P., Logan, T. J.

    Improper soil management and indiscriminate use of chemicals have contributed to some severe global environmental issues, e.g., volatilization losses and contamination of natural waters by sediments and agricultural fertilizers and pesticides. The increasing substitution of energy for labour and...

  9. Behaviour of laboratory mice is altered by light pollution within the housing environment

    Contributor(s):: Bedrosian, T. A., Vaughn, C. A., Weil, Z. M., Nelson, R. J.

  10. Bridging troubled waters: zooarchaeology and marine conservation on Burrard Inlet, southwest British Columbia

    Contributor(s):: Nova Pierson

    For thousands of years, the Coast Salish and their ancestors relied on the abundant marine resources of the Strait of Georgia. In the Greater Vancouver area, First Nations and others are working to restore and conserve taxa which are impacted by commercial fishing, pollution, and habitat...

  11. Conservation and animal welfare issues arising from forestry practices. (Special Issue: Conservation and animal welfare.)

    Contributor(s):: Blumstein, D. T.

    Forestry practices may directly kill animals as well as destroy and fragment their habitat. Even without habitat destruction, logging and its associated forest management practices (which include road building, re-forestation, and often increased recreational use) create noise, frighten animals,...

  12. Cuttlefish in captivity: an investigation into housing and husbandry for improving welfare

    Contributor(s):: Tonkins, B. M., Tyers, A. M., Cooke, G. M.

    The European cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) is often kept in public aquaria, is becoming more common in aquaculture, and is also the most frequently used cephalopod in European research. Since 1st January 2013, all cephalopods ( Mollusca) have been protected under UK/EU law (A(SP)A 1986,...

  13. Developing fish passage and protection at hydropower dams. (Special issue: Fish Behaviour and Welfare.)

    Contributor(s):: Schilt, C. R.

    The development of waterways, for hydropower and other industrial uses, has substantially altered many of the freshwater habitats of the planet and this has had considerable impact upon aquatic organisms. Industrial changes in aquatic ecosystems, including hydropower development, can restrict or...

  14. Dog Ownership Enhances Symptomatic Responses to Air Pollution in Children with Asthma

    Contributor(s):: McConnell, Rob, Berhane, Kiros, Molitor, Jassy, Gilliland, Frank, Kuenzli, Nino, Thorne, Peter, Thomas, Duncan, Gauderman, WJames, Avol, Edward, Lurmann, Fred, Rappaport, Edward, Jerrett, Michael, Peters, John

  15. Dogs a sentinels of human risk from environmental origin: interest for saturnim prevention; first study conducted in the Alfort French Veterinary School

    Contributor(s):: Enriquez, B., Hakou, G., Tabaries, A., Revol, B., Moal, J. le, Sasco, A., Benet, J. J.

    A study was carried out at the Alfort Veterinary School to apply the concept of sentinel animals to environmental toxicology, associated with pet epidemiology. The recruitment, with owners' consent, of adequate dogs (over 10 kg) in sufficient number, at the School's attending clinics has made it...

  16. Economic incentives for tropical forest preservation: why and how?

    Contributor(s):: Katzman, M. T., Cale, W. G., Jr.

    A discussion in the context of Amazonia of: factors that militate against tropical countries being concerned about habitat destruction; arguments in favour of habitat preservation; institutions that might satisfy development aspirations of Amazonian nations and account for global benefits of...

  17. Effects of trace metals on salmonid fish: the role of social hierarchies. (Special issue: Fish Behaviour and Welfare.)

    Contributor(s):: Sloman, K. A.

    Dominance hierarchies form among groups of salmonid fish as a result of competition over limited resources such as food and mates. These social structures occur both within natural salmonid populations and in aquaculture with associated implications for conservation and welfare. Competitive...

  18. Environmental ethics for social work: Social work's responsibility to the non-human world

    Contributor(s):: Gray, Mel, Coates, John

  19. Environmental risks of pesticides versus genetic engineering for agricultural pest control

    Contributor(s):: Paoletti, M. G., Pimentel, D.

    This paper discusses the environmental risks of pesticides as compared to the risks associated with the application of genetic engineering and biotechnology in agricultural pest, plant pathogen and weed control. It is suggested that in terms of environmental and public health impacts, pesticides...

  20. Ethanol fuels: energy security, economics and the environment

    Contributor(s):: Pimentel, D.

    Problems of fuel ethanol production have been the subject of numerous reports, including this analysis. The conclusions are that ethanol: does not improve US energy security; is uneconomical; is not a renewable energy source; and increases environmental degradation. Ethanol production is...