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One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases
| Contributor(s):: Michael J Day
The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century...
Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and exposure to bats in two rural communities in Guatemala
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| Contributor(s):: David Moran, Patricia Juliao, Danilo Alvarez, Kim A Lindblade, James A Ellison, Amy T Gilbert, Brett Petersen, Charles Rupprecht, Sergio Recuenco
Background Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus, of the genus Lyssavirus. The principal reservoir for rabies in Latin America is the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), which feeds routinely on the blood of cattle, and when livestock are scarce, may prey on...
Understanding Factors Influencing Dog Owners' Intention to Vaccinate Against Rabies Evaluated Using Health Belief Model Constructs
| Contributor(s):: Tariku Jibat Beyene, Beakal Mindaye, Samson Leta, Natalia Cernicchiaro, Crawford W. Revie
Ethiopia has one of the highest incidence levels of human rabies in Africa, with 3–7 deaths per 100,000 people annually. The country has no official rabies control programme, despite the availability of an effective canine vaccine to control rabies. To support effective rabies control, an...
A Comparative Study of Enumeration Techniques for Free-Roaming Dogs in Rural Baramati, District Pune, India
| Contributor(s):: Harish Kumar Tiwari, Abi Tamim Vanak, Mark O'Dea, Jully Gogoi-Tiwari, Ian Duncan Robertson
The presence of unvaccinated free-roaming dogs (FRD) amidst human settlements is a major contributor to the high incidence of rabies in countries such as India, where the disease is endemic. Estimating FRD population size is crucial to the planning and evaluation of interventions,...
In Vivo Safety Studies With SPBN GASGAS in the Frame of Oral Vaccination of Foxes and Raccoon Dogs Against Rabies
| Contributor(s):: Steffen Ortmann, Antje Kretzchmar, Christiane Kaiser, Thomas Linder, Conrad Freuling, Christian Kaiser, Peter Schuster, Thomas Mueller, Ad Vos
In order to obtain Marketing Authorization for an oral rabies vaccine in the European Union, not only safety studies in the target species, red fox and raccoon dog, are required. Since baits are distributed unsupervised in the environment, specific safety studies in selected non-target species...
Dog Ecology and Rabies Knowledge of Owners and Non-Owners in Sanur, A Sub-District of the Indonesian Island Province of Bali
| Contributor(s):: Elly Hiby, Kadek Karang Agustina, Kate Nattras Atema, Gusti Ngurah Bagus, Janice Girardi, Mike Harfoot, Yacinta Haryono, Lex Hiby, Hendra Irawan, Levin Kalalo, Sang Gede Purnama, I. Made Subrata, Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita, Ni Wayan Utami, Pande Putu Januraga, Dewa Nyoman Wirawan
That rabies can be managed humanely using vaccination is well accepted. However, making sure enough dogs in the population are vaccinated and therefore able to fight off the virus can be challenging. Getting owners to be more responsible for their dogs should help keep the proportion of...
Rabies Vaccination Targets for Stray Dog Populations
| Contributor(s):: Tiffany Leung, Stephen A. Davis
The role of stray dogs in the persistence of domestic dog rabies, and whether removal of such dogs is beneficial, remains contentious issues for control programs seeking to eliminate rabies. While a community might reach the WHO vaccination target of 70% for dogs that can be handled, the stray or...
The Role of Dog Population Management in Rabies Elimination—A Review of Current Approaches and Future Opportunities
| Contributor(s):: Louise H. Taylor, Ryan M. Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M. Lindenmayer, Douglas C. Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, Louis H. Nel
Free-roaming dogs and rabies transmission are integrally linked across many low-income countries, and large unmanaged dog populations can be daunting to rabies control program planners. Dog population management (DPM) is a multifaceted concept that aims to improve the health and well-being of...
Toward Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies: Experiences from Implementing a Large-scale Demonstration Project in Southern Tanzania
| Contributor(s):: Emmanuel Abraham Mpolya, Tiziana Lembo, Kennedy Lushasi, Rebecca Mancy, Eberhard M. Mbunda, Selemani Makungu, Matthew Maziku, Lwitiko Sikana, Gurdeep Jaswant, Sunny Townsend, François-Xavier Meslin, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Chanasa Ngeleja, Joel Changalucha, Zacharia Mtema, Maganga Sambo, Geofrey Mchau, Kristyna Rysava, Alphoncina Nanai, Rudovick Kazwala, Sarah Cleaveland, Katie Hampson
A Rabies Elimination Demonstration Project was implemented in Tanzania from 2010 through to 2015, bringing together government ministries from the health and veterinary sectors, the World Health Organization, and national and international research institutions. Detailed data on mass dog...
Eliminating Dog-Mediated Rabies in Sikkim, India: A 10-Year Pathway to Success for the SARAH Program
| Contributor(s):: Helen Byrnes, Andrea Britton, Thinlay Bhutia
A third of the world rabies burden is in India. The Sikkim Anti-Rabies and Animal Health (SARAH) program is the first state-wide rabies program in India and demonstrates a successful One Health model of dog-mediated rabies elimination. The SARAH program was created in 2006 as a collaboration...
Editorial: Towards Elimination of Dog Mediated Human Rabies
| Contributor(s):: Salome Dürr, Anna S. Fahrion, Lea Knopf, Louise H. Taylor
Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease with a high impact on human and animal health. The disease is almost 100% fatal after clinical signs appear and kills tens of thousands of people per year worldwide. About 99% of infections in humans are caused by rabid domestic dog bites. Human disease is...
Cost Description and Comparative Cost Efficiency of Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Canine Mass Vaccination against Rabies in N'Djamena, Chad
| Contributor(s):: Rolande Mindekem, Monique Sarah Lechenne, Kemdongarti Service Naissengar, Assandi Oussiguéré, Bidjeh Kebkiba, Daugla Doumagoum Moto, Idriss Oumar Alfaroukh, Laurent Tinoanga Ouedraogo, Sahidou Salifou, Jakob Zinsstag
Rabies claims approximately 59,000 human lives annually and is a potential risk to 3.3 billion people in over 100 countries worldwide. Despite being fatal in almost 100% of cases, human rabies can be prevented by vaccinating dogs, the most common vector, and the timely administration of...
Assessing the Risk of a Canine Rabies Incursion in Northern Australia
| Contributor(s):: Emily G. Hudson, Victoria J. Brookes, Michael P. Ward
Rabies is a globally distributed virus that causes approximately 60,00 human deaths annually with >99% of cases caused by dog bites. Australia is currently canine rabies free. However, the recent eastward spread of rabies in the Indonesian archipelago has increased the probability of rabies...
Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Deaths by 2030: Needs Assessment and Alternatives for Progress Based on Dog Vaccination
| Contributor(s):: Ryan M. Wallace, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Jesse D. Blanton, Julie Cleaton, Richard Franka
Background: Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be...
Comparing Methods of Assessing Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Rural and Urban Communities in Tanzania
| Contributor(s):: Maganga Sambo, Paul C. D. Johnson, Karen Hotopp, Joel Changalucha, Sarah Cleaveland, Rudovick Kazwala, Tiziana Lembo, Ahmed Lugelo, Kennedy Lushasi, Mathew Maziku, Eberhard Mbunda, Zacharia Mtema, Lwitiko Sikana, Sunny E. Townsend, Katie Hampson
Rabies can be eliminated by achieving comprehensive coverage of 70% of domestic dogs during annual mass vaccination campaigns. Estimates of vaccination coverage are, therefore, required to evaluate and manage mass dog vaccination programs; however, there is no specific guidance for the most...
Assessing Factors Associated with Observed Levels of Adherence to Antirabies PEP Vaccine Among Animal Bite Victims in Machakos Level Five Hospital
| Contributor(s):: Alice N. Gichohi
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with observed levels of adherence to ant rabies PEP vaccine among animal bite victims in Machakos level five hospital.Methodology: The study used Cross sectional study design. It utilized both qualitative and quantitative...
Building the road to a regional zoonoses strategy: A survey of zoonoses programmes in the Americas
| Contributor(s):: Melody J Maxwell, Mary H Freire de Carvalho, Armando E Hoet, Marco AN Vigilato, Julio C Pompei, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas, Patrick Butaye (editor)
In recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on...
Rabies control initiative in Tamil Nadu, India: a test case for the 'One Health' approach
| Contributor(s):: Syed Shahid Abbas, Vidya Venkataramanan, Garima Pathak, Manish Kakkar
Although India accounts for nearly 50%5C% of the global rabies mortality, there is no organised national rabies control programme. Rabies control is generally confined to small urban pockets, with minimal intersectoral co-ordination. Tamil Nadu is the first state in India to implement a...
Forecasting the spread of raccoon rabies using a purpose-specific group decision-making process
| Contributor(s):: Anderson, Aaron, Shwiff, Stephanie A., Chipman, Richard B., Atwood, Todd, Cozzens, Tyler, Fillo, Frank, Hale, Robert, Hatch, Brody, Maki, Joanne, Rhodes, Olin E., Rees, Erin E., Rupprecht, Charles E., Tinline, Rowland, VerCauteren, Kurt C., Slate, Dennis
Evaluation of rhodamine B as a biomarker for raccoons
| Contributor(s):: Fry, T. L., Atwood, T., Dunbar, M. R.