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  1. Impact of trapping and handling on Leukocyte Coping Capacity in bank voles ( Clethrionomys glareolus ) and wood mice ( Apodemus sylvaticus )

    Contributor(s):: Gelling, M., McLaren, G. W., Mathews, F., Mian, R., Macdonald, D. W.

    Small mammals are routinely live-trapped and subsequently handled for a range of ecological and behavioural studies. Despite the techniques commonly employed being potentially stressful for the individual animals involved, it has hitherto been difficult to quantify the physiological impact. Here,...

  2. Intra-abdominal transmitter implantation in mice: effects on behaviour and body weight

    Contributor(s):: Baumans, V., Bouwknecht, J. A., Boere, H., Kramer, K., Lith, H. A. van, Weerd, H. A. van de, Herck, H. van

  3. m Stereotypic behaviour in wild caught and laboratory bred bank voles ( Clethrionomys glareolus )

    Contributor(s):: Cooper, J. J., Nicol, C. J.

  4. Measurement of aversion to determine humane methods of anaesthesia and euthanasia

    Contributor(s):: Leach, M. C., Bowell, V. A., Allan, T. F., Morton, D. B.

    The distress experienced by animals during the induction of unconsciousness remains one of the most important and yet overlooked aspects of effective methods of anaesthesia and euthanasia. Here, we show that considerable differences exist in the aversive responses elicited by 12 common methods of...

  5. Modulation of aggression in male mice: influence of cage cleaning regime and scent marks

    Contributor(s):: Loo, P. L. P. van, Kruitwagen, C. L. J. J., Zutphen, L. F. M. van, Koolhaas, J. M., Baumans, V.

    Group housing of male laboratory mice often leads to welfare problems due to aggressive behaviour. From a welfare perspective, individual housing is not a preferred solution to these problems - and so other ways of reducing aggression between male mice were sought. Aggression peaks after...

  6. Movement and mortality of translocated urban-suburban grey squirrels

    Contributor(s):: Adams, L. W., Hadidian, J., Flyger, V.

    During summer and autumn of 1994-1997, we determined the movements and mortality of 38 adult male Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) that had been captured in urban-suburban backyards and translocated to a large forest. The squirrels did not fare well. Squirrels not found dead or...

  7. Murid stress odours: a review and a 'low tech' method of collection

    Contributor(s):: Mason, G. J., Dallaire, J., Ware, N.

    Stress cues can affect the welfare of animals in close proximity and are possibly useful non-invasive indicators of the emitters' welfare. To facilitate their study in murids, we tested whether rats' stress odours could be collected and stored using an enfleurage-type technique. 'Donor' rats were...

  8. Neonate rats demonstrate high levels of retention for odour preference when a substantially reduced training trial of two minutes is used

    Contributor(s):: Ogeil, R. P., Edwards, T. M.

    Neonate rats have played an important and unique role within the memory literature. Specifically, they are relatively naive to experience, can be trained in an ethologically-valid way, using a single trial, which is not aversive and can demonstrate retention for at least 24 h, post-training. As...

  9. Nest-building behaviour in male rats from three inbred strains: BN/HsdCpb, BDIX/OrIIco and LEW/Mol

    Contributor(s):: Jegstrup, I. M., Vestergaard, R., Vach, W., Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    Three inbred strains of male laboratory rat (BN/HsdCpb, BDIX/OrIIco and LEW/Mol) were provided with nest boxes and nest materials, and were observed for nest-building activity. After 7 days, each cage and nest box was examined. Each nest was weighed and scored for complexity, and returned to the...

  10. Operant animal welfare: productive approaches and persistent difficulties

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. G., Pittman, M., Pajor, E. A.

    Operant procedures occupy a prominent role within animal welfare science because they provide information about the strength of animals' preferences. It is assumed that strongly motivated choices commonly indicate conditions necessary for uncompromised welfare. A review of the literature shows...

  11. Preferences for nest boxes as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    Contributor(s):: Weerd, H. A. van de, Loo, P. L. P. van, Zutphen, L. F. M. van, Koolhaas, J. M., Baumans, V.

  12. Preferences of laboratory mice for characteristics of soiling sites

    Contributor(s):: Sherwin, C. M.

    When designing cages to maximize welfare, both the physical and psychological needs of the animals for which the cage is intended should be considered. Many laboratory species show non-random defecation patterns and therefore might possess a psychological need for soiling sites with preferred...

  13. Rats demand social contact

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. G., Hunt, M., Harper, D.

  14. Reducing the number of animals used in behavioural genetic experiments using chromosome substitution strains

    Contributor(s):: Laarakker, M. C., Ohl, F., Lith, H. A. van

    Chromosome substitution strains (also called consomic lines or strains) are strains in which a single, full-length chromosome from one inbred strain - the donor strain - has been transferred onto the genetic background of a second inbred strain - the host strain. Based on the results obtained...

  15. Refinement of gerbil housing and husbandry in the laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Waiblinger, E., Konig, B.

    Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are a widely used model species in parasitology and epilepsy research. Under standard laboratory housing conditions gerbils develop stereotypic digging, a behavioural abnormality, which is caused by the lack of a burrow in the laboratory cage. Here, we...

  16. Repetitive backflipping behaviour in captive roof rats ( Rattus rattus ) and the effects of cage enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Callard, M. D., Bursten, S. N., Price, E. O.

    Repetitive 'stereotyped' behaviours are often performed by both wild and domestic rodents in small laboratory cages. In this study, a behaviour resembling a backwards somersault or backflip is described and quantified in captive roof rats (ship or black rats, Rattus rattus). Videotapes of...

  17. Score sheets for the monitoring of transgenic mice

    Contributor(s):: Mertens, C., Rulicke, T.

    This paper describes the development of a comprehensive score sheet for transgenic mice designed for individual animal health monitoring and the detection of strain-specific characteristics relevant to animal welfare. The score sheets are available on the Internet at...

  18. Sickness behaviour and its relevance to animal welfare assessment at the group level

    Contributor(s):: Millman, S. T.

    The inflammatory response evokes changes in behaviour including increased thermoregulatory activities and sleep, reduced social exploration and appetite, and altered food preferences. This sickness response also includes feelings of lethargy, depression, and pain, collectively referred to as...

  19. Strain-specific effects of cage enrichment in male laboratory mice ( Mus musculus )

    Contributor(s):: Nevison, C. M., Hurst, J. L., Barnard, C. J.

    Within-cage behaviour and physiological parameters were compared among male mice from 6 strains in an enriched (nesting material and a perspex tunnel) and non-enriched environment (n = 32 per strain). The outbred strains were more aggressive than the inbred strains and levels of aggression were...

  20. Telemetry as a method for measuring the impact of housing conditions on rats' welfare

    Contributor(s):: Krohn, T. C., Hansen, A. K., Dragsted, N.

    Various tools have been developed over previous years to study the welfare of laboratory animals. These include preference tests, which are commonly used to evaluate housing environments. Preference tests, however, have some pitfalls. They supply information only on the animals' present...