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Behavioural decisions for managing social distance and aggression in captive polar bears ( Ursus maritimus )
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Contributor(s):: Renner, M. J., Kelly, A. L.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in most zoos attracts high levels of public attention and can play an important role in conservation education. Polar bears in the wild are typically solitary; bears in captivity often house socially. This study reported behavioural evidence on how bears manage...
Comment on van Kerkhove's commentary
Contributor(s):: King, T.
Comment on "van Kerkhove's Commentary" [2004 this issue] noting that the author "cannot dismiss completely or comfortably the use of social dominance theory in behavior modification."
Determining the value of social companionship to captive tufted capuchin monkeys ( Cebus apella )
Contributor(s):: Dettmer, E., Fragaszy, D.
The objective of the study is to assess the magnitude of the psychological need for social companionship in pair-housed tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) (six males and 1 female). The classification of commodities as necessities or luxuries are included. The study directly compared the...
Effect of equestrian therapy and onotherapy in physical and psycho-social performances of adults with intellectual disability: a preliminary study of evaluation tools based on the ICF classification
Contributor(s):: Borioni, N., Marinaro, P., Celestini, S., Del Sole, F., Magro, R., Zoppi, D., Mattei, F., Dall' Armi, V., Mazzarella, F., Cesario, A., Bonassi, S.
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of equestrian rehabilitation (ER) and onotherapy (Ono) on physical and psycho-social performances of subjects affected by intellectual disability (ID), and to develop a measurement tool based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and...
Impact of zoo visitors on the fecal cortisol levels and behavior of an endangered species: Indian blackbuck ( Antelope cervicapra L.)
Contributor(s):: Thangavel, Rajagopal, Govindaraju, Archunan, Mahadevan, Sekar
This study investigated behavioral activities (resting, moving, aggressive, social, and reproductive behavior) and fecal cortisol levels in 8 individually identified adult male blackbucks during periods of varying levels of zoo visitors (zero, low, high, and extremely high zoo visitor density)....
Increasing the frequency of co-mingling piglets during the lactation period alters the development of social behavior before and after weaning
Contributor(s):: Kanaan, V. T., Lay, D. C., Jr., Richert, B. T., Pajor, E. A.
The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing the frequency of co-mingling affected piglets' behavior development before and after weaning. Co-mingling once (CM1), piglets interacted with 1 unfamiliar litter Days 10-18 after birth; co-mingling twice (CM2), piglets interacted with 1...
Minimal number of conspecifics needed to minimize the stress response of isolated mature ewes
Contributor(s):: Carbajal, S., Orihuela, A.
The objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of conspecifics that sheep require to minimize the stress associated with isolation from the flock. The study used twelve 3-year-old Suffolk ewes. Every test day, the study randomly selected 1, 2 or 3 ewes to be visually separated...
Response to comments
Contributor(s):: Kerkhove, W. van
Author's response to reviewers of his article, "A Fresh Look at the Wolf-Pack Theory of Companion-Animal Dog Social Behavior,} which appeared in this issue and "raised issues worthy of further consideration and investigation."
Siamangs ( Hylobates syndactylus ) and white-cheeked gibbons ( Hylobates leucogenys ) show few behavioral differences related to zoo attendance
Contributor(s):: Smith, K. N., Kuhar, C. W.
The effect of visitors on behavior and welfare of nonhuman animals in the zoo has been an active research topic during the last few decades. Although research has variously shown negative or positive impacts of zoo visitors on animals in captivity, previous primate research at Disney's Animal...
Socialization of a single hand-reared tiger cub
Contributor(s):: Kelling, A. S., Bashaw, M. J., Bloomsmith, M. A., Maple, T. L.
Given the drawbacks of hand-rearing nonhuman animals in captivity, the practice is generally avoided, but it is sometimes necessary. A few scientific publications are available to guide managers toward best practices in hand-rearing, but the majority of articles focus on hand-rearing captive...
Some preliminary evidence of the social facilitation of mounting behavior in a juvenile bull Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus )
Contributor(s):: Rees, P. A.
This study recorded sexual behaviour within a captive herd of 8 Asian elephants in England, UK, for approximately 230 h on 50 days over a period of 10 months (January-November 1999). A single adult and a single juvenile bull mounting cows more than 160 times were observed. When the juvenile bull...
The concept of dominance and the treatment of aggression in multidog homes: a comment on van Kerkhove's commentary
Contributor(s):: Mertens, P. A.
Comment on "van Kerkhove's Commentary" [2004 this issue] relating to the concept of dominance and the treatment of aggression in multidog homes.
The dog in wolf's clothing?
Contributor(s):: Zawistowski, S., Patronek, G.
The authors' have asked three well-respected practitioners across the spectrum of those working in applied companion animal behavior to read van Kerkhove's Commentary [2004 this issue] and share their thoughts on the topic.
The effects of lameness on social and individual behavior of dairy cows
Contributor(s):: Galindo, F., Broom, D. M.
Lameness is one of the most important welfare problems in dairy cattle. Most studies on lameness have focused on wide ranging surveys to identify causal factors, but few have considered the welfare implications of this disorder. In this study, we compared the social and individual behaviour of 10...
The effects of visitor density and intensity on the behavior of two captive jaguars ( Panthera onca )
Contributor(s):: Sellinger, R. L., Ha, J. C.
Several researchers have reported significant effects of visitor density and intensity on captive animal behavior. This study determined whether this was the case for 2 captive jaguars housed at the Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle, WA. Subjects were monitored for changes in behavior as a function of...
The Evaluation of an Animal Assisted Therapy Intervention for Elders with Dementia in Long-Term Care
Contributor(s):: Sellers, Debra M.
This study examined the effects of animal assisted therapy (AAT) on the social and agitated behaviors of elders with dementia residing in long-term care. A purposefully selected sample of four elders from one skilled nursing facility in a rural community participated in the study. Utilizing an...
The physiological and behavioural impact of sensory contact among unfamiliar adult mice in the laboratory
Contributor(s):: Rettich, A., Kasermann, H. P., Pelczar, P., Burki, K., Arras, M.
Housing mice in the laboratory in groups enables social interaction and is the way a laboratory should house mice. However, adult males show reciprocal aggression and are therefore frequently housed individually. Alternatively, a grid divider, which allows sensory contact by sight and smell but...
The efficacy of therapeutic horticulture and animal-assisted therapy to promote prosocial behavior in foster youth
Contributor(s):: Suprise, Katrina L.
Behavior of feral horses in response to culling and GnRH immunocontraception
Contributor(s):: Ransom, J. I., Powers, J. G., Garbe, H. M., Oehler, M. W., Sr., Nett, T. M., Baker, D. L.
Wildlife management actions can alter fundamental behaviors of individuals and groups, which may directly impact their life history parameters in unforeseen ways. This is especially true for highly social animals because changes in one individual's behavior can cascade throughout its social...
Food community networks as leverage for social embeddedness
Contributor(s):: Migliore, G., Schifani, G., Guccione, G. D., Cembalo, L.
Social embeddedness, defined as the interaction of economic activities and social behavior, is used in this study as a conceptual tool to describe the growing phenomenon of food community networks (FCNs). The aim in this paper was to map the system of relations which the FCNs develop both inside...