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  1. Impact of publicly sponsored neutering programs on animal population dynamics at animal shelters: the New Hampshire and Austin experiences

    Contributor(s):: White, S. C., Jefferson, E., Levy, J. K.

    This study found that government-funded surgical sterilization of companion animals has been widely promoted as a means of decreasing shelter intake and euthanasia. However, little information is available about the true impact of these programs on community and shelter nonhuman animal population...

  2. Improving the welfare of captive macaques ( Macaca sp.) through the use of water as enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Robins, J. G., Waitt, C. D.

    This review evaluates the use of water as a tool for enriching the environments of macaques (Macaca sp.) in captivity. Many macaque species are known to swim and forage in water in the wild, and in-situ reports suggest that access to water promotes activity and cultural behavior. Yet, there is a...

  3. Noncompliance with Public Health Service (PHS) policy on humane care and use of laboratory animals: an exploratory analysis

    Contributor(s):: Gomez, L. M., Conlee, K. M., Stephens, M. L.

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a major biomedical research-funding body in the United States. Approximately 40% of NIH-funded research involves experimentation on nonhuman animals (Monastersky, 200811. Monastersky, R. 2008, April 18. Protesters fail to slow animal research. The...

  4. Primate location preference in a double-tier cage: the effects of illumination and cage height

    Contributor(s):: Maclean, E. L., Prior, S. R., Platt, M. L., Brannon, E. M.

    Nonhuman primates are frequently housed in double-tier arrangements with significant differences between the environments of the upper and lower-row cages. Although several studies have investigated whether this arrangement alters monkeys' behavior, no studies have addressed the two most notable...

  5. Production costs and animal welfare for four stylized hog production systems

    Contributor(s):: Seibert, L., Norwood, F. B.

    Nonhuman animal welfare is arguably the most contentious issue facing the hog industry. Animal advocacy groups influence the regulation of hog farms and induce some consumers to demand more humane pork products. Hog producers are understandably reluctant to improve animal well being unless the...

  6. Risk factors and remediation of self-injurious and self-abuse behavior in rhesus macaques

    Contributor(s):: Rommeck, I., Anderson, K., Heagerty, A., Cameron, A., McCowan, B.

    Considered signs of decreased welfare - abnormal behaviors such as self-injury and self-abuse among nonhuman primates housed in the laboratory - may put into question the validity and reliability of scientific research using these animals as models. Providing environmental enrichment decreases...

  7. Self-harm in laboratory-housed primates: where is the evidence that the Animal Welfare Act amendment has worked?

    Contributor(s):: Balcombe, J., Ferdowsian, H., Durham, D.

    The 1985 amendment to the United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to promote psychological well being of primates in the laboratory represents an acknowledgment of an important welfare problem concerning nonhuman animals. How effective has this amendment been? Perhaps the best-known contributor to...

  8. Simple cannulation procedure for serial blood sampling through cutaneous ulnar vein in chickens

    Contributor(s):: Bayer, D. M., Mohan, K., Jayakumar, K., Manafi, M., Pavithra, B. H.

    The objective of the study was to collect repeated, low-stress blood samples from the ulnar vein of chickens required for pharmacokinetic studies or hormonal assays. The study used 5 apparently healthy, unsexed, commercial broiler chickens about 6 weeks old and weighing 1.7-1.9 kg for serial...

  9. The effects of chronic exposure to common bedding materials on the metabolic rate and overall health of male CD-1 mice

    Contributor(s):: Becker, C. E., Mathur, C. F., Rehnberg, B. G.

    Anecdotes and personal Web pages claim that cedar and pine beddings cause respiratory distress in rodents, although no previous research could be found to support these claims. There have, however, been published studies of respiratory distress in cedar and pine mill workers. That research links...

  10. The lower row monkey cage: an overlooked variable in biomedical research

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V., Reinhardt, A.

    A survey of 96 primatological articles revealed that cage location of research monkeys is rarely mentioned, although the environment of upper and lower row-housed animals markedly differs in terms of light quality, light intensity, and living dimension. Not accounting for these uncontrolled...

  11. The Problem of Anthropomorphous Animals: Toward a Posthumanist Ethics

    Contributor(s):: Varsava, N.

  12. The political economy of land grabs in Malawi: investigating the contribution of limphasa sugar corporation to rural development

    Contributor(s):: Chinsinga, B., Chasukwa, M., Zuka, S. P.

    Though a recent phenomenon, land grabs have generated considerable debate that remains highly polarized. In this debate, one view presents land deals as a path to sustainable and transformative rural development through capital accumulation, infrastructural development, technology transfer, and...

  13. Does Pet Ownership in Infancy Lead to Asthma or Allergy at School Age? Pooled Analysis of Individual Participant Data from 11 European Birth Cohorts

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: K. Lødrup Carlsen, S. Roll, K.H. Carlsen, P. Mowinchel, A. Wijga, B. Brunekreef, M. Torrent, G. Roberts, S.H. Arshad, I. Kull, U. Krämer, A. von Berg, E. Eller, A. Høst, C. Kuehni, B. Spycher, J. Sunyer, C. Chen, A. Reich, A. Asarnoj, C. Puig, O. Herbarth, J. Mahachie John, K. Van Steen, S. Willich, U. Wahn, S. Lau, T. Keil

    Objective To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6–10 years. Design Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the...

  14. Animal-Assisted Therapy: Motives and Rewards

    | Contributor(s):: Kailee Victoria Collins

    Animal-assisted therapy is a complimentary therapy utilized in health care to provide goal-directed therapy using dogs. The purpose of this study was to understand what motivates individuals to being animal-assisted volunteering and rewards that encourage and sustain animal-assisted volunteering....

  15. Human Analogue Safe Haven Effect of the Owner: Behavioural and Heart Rate Response to Stressful Social Stimuli in Dogs

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: M. Gácsi, K. Maros, S. Sernkvist, T. Faragó, A. Miklósi

    The secure base and safe haven effects of the attachment figure are central features of the human attachment theory. Recently, conclusive evidence for human analogue attachment behaviours in dogs has been provided, however, the owner’s security-providing role in danger has not been directly...

  16. Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in pregnant Women

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: J. Stockholm, S. Schojørring, L. Pedersen, A.L. Bischoff, N. Følsgaard, C.G. Carson, B. Chawes, K. Bønnelykke, A. Mølgaard, K.A. Krogfelt, H. Bisgaard

    BackgroundFurred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the...

  17. Reverse Zoonotic Disease Transmission (Zooanthroponosis): A Systematic Review of Seldom-Documented Human Biological Threats to Animals

    | Contributor(s):: Ali M. Messenger, Amber N. Barnes, Gregory C. Gray

    Background Research regarding zoonotic diseases often focuses on infectious diseases animals have given to humans. However, an increasing number of reports indicate that humans are transmitting pathogens to animals. Recent examples include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, influenza A...

  18. The Characteristics of Wild Rat (Rattus spp.) Populations from an Inner-City Neighborhood with a Focus on Factors Critical to the Understanding of Rat-Associated Zoonoses

    | Contributor(s):: Chelsea G. Himsworth, Claire M. Jardine, Kirbee L. Parsons, Alice Y.T. Feng, David M. Patrick

    Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are among the most ubiquitous urban wildlife species and are the source of a number of zoonotic diseases responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. Rodent ecology is a primary determinant of the...

  19. Microsporidia Detection and Genotyping Study of Human Pathogenic E. bieneusi in Animals from Spain

    | Contributor(s):: Ana Luz Galván-Díaz, Angela Magnet, Soledad Fenoy, Nuno Henriques-Gil, María Haro, Francisco Ponce Gordo, Guadalupe Miró, Carmen del Aguila, Fernando Izquierdo

    Microsporidia are ubiquitous parasites infecting all animal phyla and we present evidence that supports their zoonotic potential. Fecal samples taken from domestic (cats and dogs), farm (pigs, rabbits and ostriches) and wild animals (foxes) from different provinces of Spain were evaluated for...

  20. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Changes with Hippotherapy in Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    | Contributor(s):: B.R. Rigby, A.R. Gloekner, S. Papadakis, A.A. Bane, J.S. Forsse, A.E. Bird, T.R. Willard, D.L. Bullinger, R.R. Rogers, K.D. Biggerstaff, P.W. Grandjean

    Hippotherapy utilizes the rhythmic movement of the horse to improve functional abilities and quality of life of individuals with neurological impairments. Little is known regarding the changes in body segment kinematics and cardiovascular responses of the rider due to the therapy. A change in the...