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Potential behavioural indicators of post-operative pain in male laboratory rabbits following abdominal surgery
Contributor(s):: Farnworth, M. J., Walker, J. K., Schweizer, K. A., Chuang, C. L., Guild, S. J., Barrett, C. J., Leach, M. C., Waran, N. K.
This study aimed to identify behaviours that could be used to assess post-operative pain and analgesic efficacy in male rabbits. In consideration of the 'Three Rs', behavioural data were collected on seven male New Zealand White rabbits in an ethically approved experiment requiring abdominal...
Quality of life means welfare: how is it related to other concepts and assessed?
Contributor(s):: Broom, D. M.
Our view of which individuals should be the subjects of our moral actions is expanding to include more people and more species. Animal welfare is the subject of rapidly increasing concern in most countries in the world, and this concern is resulting in changes in the ways in which animal users...
Relationships between multiple welfare indicators measured in individual chickens across different time periods and environments
Contributor(s):: Nicol, C. J., Caplen, G., Edgar, J., Richards, G., Browne, W. J.
The assessment of animal welfare requires the collection of multiple indicators of welfare but quantification of their associations in different contexts is lacking. Previous studies have examined correlations between a few indicators, but not relationships between many different indicators, or...
Repeatability of a skin tent test for dehydration in working horses and donkeys
Contributor(s):: Pritchard, J. C., Barr, A. R. S., Whay, H. R.
Dehydration is a serious welfare issue for equines working in developing countries. Risk factors such as high ambient temperature, heavy workload and poor water availability are exacerbated by the traditional belief that provision of water to working animals will reduce their strength or cause...
RICHPIG: a semantic model to assess enrichment materials for pigs
Contributor(s):: Bracke, M. B. M.
A computer-based model was constructed to assess enrichment materials (EMats) for intensively-farmed weaned, growing and fattening pigs on a scale from 0 to 10. This model, called RICHPIG, was constructed in order to support the further implementation of EC Directive 2001/93/EC, which states that...
Science, values and animal welfare: exploring the 'inextricable connection'
Contributor(s):: Fraser, D.
Scientific uncertainty - how should it be handled in relation to scientific advice regarding animal welfare issues?
Contributor(s):: Sandoe, P., Forkman, B., Christiansen, S. B.
The provision of advice on animal welfare is an important part of the work of scientists in applied ethology, neurophysiology, veterinary epidemiology and other disciplines. Those who request guidance often expect advice that will help them to make progress in difficult discussions. Scientists...
Social behaviour of collared peccaries ( Pecari tajacu ) under three space allowances
Contributor(s):: Nogueira, S. S. da C., Silva, M. G., Dias, C. T. dos S., Pompeia, S., Cetra, M., Nogueira Filho, S. L. G.
Captive breeding of peccaries is on the increase in neotropical countries. Few studies, however, have reported behavioural responses of wild animals under farmed conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of space allowance on the occurrence of social behaviour...
Strengthening US organic standards on animal health and welfare
Contributor(s):: Merrigan, K. A., Bailey, M. R., Lockeretz, W.
Organic livestock production has been increasing in the US, although it still merely constitutes a small fraction of total production. Its success will require detailed standards supported by scientific knowledge and consistent with organic farming principles. However, such standards, mandated...
Stunning pigs with different gas mixtures: aversion in pigs
Contributor(s):: Dalmau, A., Rodriguez, P., Llonch, P., Velarde, A.
The objective of this study was to assess the aversion to exposure of 90% argon, 70% N2/30% CO2 and 85% N2/15% CO2 by volume in atmospheric air in 24 halothane-free slaughter-weight pigs using aversion learning techniques and behavioural studies in an experimental slaughterhouse. Pigs were...
The educative role of an animal care committee in Canada: a case study
Contributor(s):: Bowd, A. D.
The effect of duration of manual restraint during blood sampling on plasma cortisol levels in calves
Contributor(s):: Stilwell G, G., Carvalho, R. C. de, Lima, M. S., Broom, D. M.
Many studies on stress and pain rely, solely or mainly, on plasma cortisol assessment. Confounding factors, such as handling, may cause a release of cortisol making the interpretation of the results difficult. We looked at the influence of duration of restraint on the plasma cortisol levels of...
The effect of the kennel environment on canine welfare: a critical review of experimental studies
Contributor(s):: Taylor, K. D., Mills, D. S.
Dogs can be held temporarily or permanently in kennels for a number of reasons, not necessarily for their own benefit. Although restrictive environments have been associated with poor welfare, priorities for research and change cannot be understood unless the various aspects of the kennel...
The ethics of the Three Rs principle: a reconsideration
Contributor(s):: Vorstenbosch, J. M. G.
In the past decades the Three Rs concept, famously launched by Russell and Burch in their 1959 book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, has gained a prominent place in the landscape of societal and ethical concern about animal use. Important scientific and institutional initiatives...
The interplay between replacement, reduction and refinement: considerations where the Three Rs interact
Contributor(s):: Boo, M. J. de, Rennie, A. E., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Hendriksen, C. F. M.
Russell and Burch's Three Rs principle of replacement, reduction and refinement offers a useful concept for the scientific and ethical evaluation of the use of animals in scientific procedures. Replacement, reduction and refinement are often considered separately, but when applied, one of the...
The response of marine tucuxis ( Sotalia fluviatilis ) towards tourist boats involves avoidance behaviour and a reduction in foraging
Contributor(s):: Carrera, M. L., Favaro, E. G. P., Souto, A.
Marine ecotourism has undergone worldwide expansion in recent years, leading to increased concern regarding the impact on the environment. Despite this, however, few studies into the potential effect of tourist boats on dolphin welfare, have been carried out. In order to evaluate the impact of...
The Three Rs: past, present and future
Contributor(s):: Russell, W. M. S.
The use of databases, information centres and guidelines when planning research that may involve animals
Contributor(s):: Smith, A. J., Allen, T.
In many countries scientists planning research that may involve the use of animals are required by law to examine the possibilities for replacement, reduction or refinement (the Three Rs) of these experiments. In addition to the large number of literature databases, there are now many specialist...
Toward a synthesis of conservation and animal welfare science. (Special Issue: Conservation and animal welfare.)
Conservation biology and animal welfare science are multidisciplinary fields of research that address social concerns about animals. Conservation biology focuses on wild animals, works at the level of populations, ecological systems and genetic types, and deals with threats to biodiversity and...
Using the Piglet Scream Test to enhance piglet survival on farms: data from outdoor sows
Contributor(s):: Held, S., Mason, G., Mendl, M.
The point of the Piglet Scream Test is to identify those sows that increase the survival of their piglets through good maternal behaviour. For this to work, sows must be shown to differ in their test responsiveness, for differences to be consistent across parities and for responsiveness to be...