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The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos
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| Contributor(s):: Brian J. Greco, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jen N. Hogan, Katherine A. Leighty, Jill Mellen, Georgia J. Mason, Joy A. Mench
Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta...
Rhea and the plight of pachyderms | Rhea Lopez | TEDxStXaviersMumbai
The life of a performing elephant is cruel. Despite the ban on animal performances in circuses, elephants are forced to perform illegally, continue to be beaten or they are kept chained up and endure poor care. The ex-circus elephant Rhea’s life was no different. After spending 53 years as...
Wild Connection: How Do We Connect With Animals? | Leila Goulet | TEDxRoseburg
We have all had an experience with an animal at some point in our lives… How have these experiences shaped the way we view and interact with living things? What can we do to be the voice of so many vanishing species? In this talk, personal wildlife conservation stories will be explored,...
Taming and Training in The Human Use of Elephants: The Case of Nepal, Past, Present and Future
| Contributor(s):: Piers Locke
It is a curious fact that by contrast with equine studies, a field that includes extensive historical and sociological work (e.g Budiansky 1998, Cassidy 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, Clutton-Brock 1992, Derry 2003, 2006, Hurn 2008a, 2008b), elephant husbandry has yet to be constituted as an integrated...
A comparison of zoo animal behavior in the presence of familiar and unfamiliar people
| Contributor(s):: Martin, R. A., Melfi, V.
As recorded in domestic nonhuman animals, regular interactions between animals in zoos and keepers and the resulting relationship formed (human-animal relationship [HAR]) are likely to influence the animals' behaviors with associated welfare consequences. HAR formation requires that zoo animals...
A Comparison of Zoo Animal Behavior in the Presence of Familiar and Unfamiliar People
An analysis of Ayutthaya Elephant Camp visitors
| Contributor(s):: Kitiya Teeranadechatorn
The elephant is an important animal, culturally and historically, for Thailand. Elephant camps were first established for conservation purposes. Hence, this research was conducted to examine the Ayutthaya Elephant Camp to assess its elephant welfare, education, and entertainment via a tourist...
Elephant Poaching in Bandipur Tiger Reserve, southern India: A Study on the Mortality of Asian Elephants (Elephants maximus) due to Poaching and Other Causes, Poachers and Anti-Poaching Strategies.
| Contributor(s):: Surendra Varma
Among all the elephant conservation issues the issue of poaching, on a large or small scale will have a severe effect on elephant populations. If female elephants select males with larger tusks as an indication of good health, the poacher selects the same males for their wealth. Even on a small...
A World Without Elephants | Brad Spanbauer | TEDxOshkosh
| Contributor(s):: Brad Spanbauer
In the year 2026, countries across Africa are reporting ecosystem collapse, record temperatures, reduced rainfall, and dwindling animal populations. At the center of this chaos is a void that was once filled by the African elephant. Spanbauer highlights the potential far-reaching impacts of a...
Captive Elephants in Circuses
| Contributor(s):: Varma Varma, S.R. Sujata, Suparna Ganguly, Shiela Rao
Circuses have a long history of using performing animals, both wild and domesticated. The animals are trained or conditioned to exhibit specific behaviours with no option to do otherwise. This report is based on the observation of 31 elephants belonging to a sample of seven circuses (out of 15...
How does the Tourism Industry of Sri Lanka Encourage the Elephant Commercialization?
| Contributor(s):: Indrachapa Gunasekara
Tourism is an industry where everything could be converted into a profit. There are numerous concepts and attractions which introduced ultimately, to meet various types of travel expectations. People travel for many intentions and stick to their interested areas. Culture, nature, humans,...
Reproductive endocrinology and musth indicators in a captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)
| Contributor(s):: Duer, Connie, Tomasi, Tom, Abramson, Charles I.
Detusking Fence-Breaker Elephants as an Approach in Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation
| Contributor(s):: Matthew Mutinda, Geoffrey Chenge, Francis Gakuya, Moses Otiende, Patrick Omondi, Samuel Kasiki, Ramon C. Soriguer, Samer Alasaad
BackgroundHuman-elephant conflict (HEC) is a recurring problem that appears wherever the range of elephants and humans overlap. Different methods including the use of electric fences are used worldwide to mitigate this conflict. Nonetheless, elephants learn quickly that their tusks do not conduct...
First reported case of fatal tuberculosis in a wild African elephant with past human-wildlife contact
| Contributor(s):: Vincent Obanda, J. Poghon, M. Yongo, I. Mulei, M. Ngotho, K. Waititu, J. Makumi, F. Gakuya, P. Omondi, R.C. Soriguer, S. Alasaad
Tuberculosis is emerging/re-emerging in captive elephant populations, where it causes morbidity and deaths, although no case of TB in wild African elephants has been reported. In this paper we report the first case of fatal TB in an African elephant in the wild. The infection with Mycobacterium...
A World Without Elephants: Brad Spanbauer at TEDxOshkosh
The Effect of Human Activity on the Welfare of the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia
| Contributor(s):: Iris Hagvag Ringstad
The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is vital in several African ecosystems, accentuating the importance of conserving them. However, conservation efforts are constantly complicated due to human population growth. Anthropogenic disturbances has been linked with elevated stress levels in...
Human- Wildlife Conflict - The case of elephant at Mole National Park
| Contributor(s):: Zodiac Akenten
Conflicts between wildlife and humans, particularly people who share immediate boundaries with protected areas, are common phenomenon. Declining wildlife resources has been linked to human actions through overexploitation, habitat destruction, and habitat fragmentation among others. Local people...
Distribution Patterns of Human Elephant Conflict in Areas Adjacent to Rungwa Game Reserve, Tanzania
| Contributor(s):: Wilbright Munuo
Human pressure on terrestrial ecosystems has caused loss and fragmentation of habitats for wildlife species. That has brought humans and wildlife in close proximity intensifying human wildlife conflicts, especially when wild animals with wide home ranges, such as African and Asian elephants, are...
How should the psychological welfare of zoo elephants be investigated?
| Contributor(s):: G.J. Mason, J. Veasey
The welfare of elephants is an enormous challenge for zoos in terms of animal husbandry, financial cost and public perception. This chapter’s aim is not to discuss whether elephants should be held in captivity: resolving this issue would involve sound data on the costs and...
Human Dimensions of Human-Elephant Conflict in Botswana: Exploring Visible and Hidden Well-Being Impacts
| Contributor(s):: Allison Mayberry
High densities of wild African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) combined with widespread agricultural land use has led to increasing human-elephant conflict in Botswana’s rural north. As documented within the existing scholarship, negative encounters with elephants have visible...