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Grass management regimes affect grasshopper availability and subsequently American crow activity at airports
Contributor(s):: Kennedy, Laura A., Otter, Ken A.
Ethical discourse on the use of genetically modified crops: a review of academic publications in the fields of ecology and environmental ethics
Contributor(s):: Gregorowius, D., Lindemann-Matthies, P., Huppenbauer, M.
Assessment of GM crops in commercial agriculture
Contributor(s):: Clark, E. A., Lehman, H.
The calibre of the recent discourse regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has suffered from a lack of consensus on terminology, from the scarcity of evidence upon which to assess risk to health and to the environment, and from value differences between proponents and opponents of GMOs....
Commercialization of perennial GE crops: looming challenges for regulatory frameworks
Contributor(s):: Bagavathiannan, M. V., Spok, A., Acker, R. C. van
Overall, the deregulation of genetically engineered (GE) crops for commercial cultivation in North America has been a success story. In several cases, however, GE crops have sparked concerns and disagreements among the stakeholders and there are incidences of court lawsuits, including a recent...
Conflict over risks in food production: a challenge for democracy
Contributor(s):: Jensen, K. K.
When it comes to conflict over risk management priorities in food production, a number of observers, including myself, have called for some sort of public deliberation as a means of resolving the moral disagreements underlying such conflicts. This paper asks how, precisely, such deliberation...
Exploring the links between science, risk, uncertainty, and ethics in regulatory controversies about genetically modified crops
Contributor(s):: Carr, S., Levidow, L.
Just as a stream of genetically modified crops looked set to be approved for commercial production in the European Union, the approval procedure appears to have become bogged down once again by disagreements among and within member states. Old controversies have resurfaced in new forms. The...
Finding a precautionary approach to technological developments - lessons for the evaluation of GM crops. (Special issue: The Precautionary Principle)
Contributor(s):: Mayer, S., Stirling, A.
The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops and foods into Europe has generated considerable controversy. Despite a risk assessment system that is intended to be precautionary in nature, the decisions that have been taken have not gathered public confidence. Key attributes of a...
Food safety, quality, and ethics - a post-normal perspective. (Special issue: Food safety, food quality and food ethics. Selected papers from the 3rd Congress of the European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics)
Contributor(s):: Ravetz, J. R.
I argue that the issues of food quality, in the most general sense including purity, safety, and ethics, can no longer be resolved through "normal" science and regulation. The reliance on reductionist science as the basis for policy and implementation has shown itself to be inadequate. I use...
Genetically modified (GM) crops: precautionary science and conflicts of interests
Contributor(s):: Myhr, A. I., Traavik, T.
Risk governance of GM plants and GM food products is presently subject to heated scientific and public controversies. Scientists and representatives of the biotechnology industry have dominated debates concerning safety issues. The public is suspicious with regard to the motives of scientists,...
Ranking genetically modified plants according to familiarity. (Special issue: Food safety, food quality and food ethics. Selected papers from the 3rd Congress of the European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics)
Contributor(s):: Madsen, K. H., Holm, P. B., Lassen, J., Sandoe, P.
In public debate, genetically modified plants (GMPs) are often referred to as being unnatural or a violation of nature. Some people have serious moral concerns about departures from what is natural. Others are concerned about potential risks to the environment arising from the combination of...
Risks associated with genetic modification: an annotated bibliography of peer reviewed natural science publications
Contributor(s):: Weaver, S. A., Morris, M. C.
An annotated bibliography is presented of peer-reviewed papers highlighting the human health, animal welfare, and environmental risks (concerning biodiversity in particular) associated with genetic modification. The bibliography is organized according to the nature of the risks in question: (1)...
Special Issue: Ethics and the politics of food. (Special Issue: Ethics and the politics of food.)
Contributor(s):: Lien, M. E., Anthony, R.
This special issue examines how best to manage food production, distribution and consumption in an ethically viable manner. This issue consists of five papers. The first paper explains the differences between US and EU policies on genetically modified food and crops. The second paper explores the...
Sustainable development and Norwegian genetic engineering regulations: applications, impacts, and challenges
The main purpose of The Norwegian Gene Technology Act (1993) is to enforce containment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and control of GMO releases. Furthermore, the Act intends to ensure that "production and use of GMOs should take place in an ethically and socially justifiable way, in...
The moral difference between intragenic and transgenic modification of plants
Contributor(s):: Myskja, B. K.
Public policy on the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has mainly been concerned with defining proper strategies of risk management. However, surveys and focus group interviews show that although lay people are concerned with risks, they also emphasize that genetic...
The Precautionary Principle: scientific uncertainty and omitted research in the context of GMO use and release. (Special issue: The Precautionary Principle)
Commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have sparked profound controversies concerning adequate approaches to risk regulation. Scientific uncertainty and ambiguity, omitted research areas, and lack of basic knowledge crucial to risk assessments have become apparent. The...
Ethics in the societal debate on genetically modified organisms: a (re)quest for Sense and Sensibility
Contributor(s):: Devos, Y., Maeseele, P., Reheul, D., Speybroeck, L. van, Waele, D. de
Via a historical reconstruction, this paper primarily demonstrates how the societal debate on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) gradually extended in terms of actors involved and concerns reflected. It is argued that the implementation of recombinant DNA technology out of the laboratory and...