Each submitted manuscript will be reviewed by the editor-in-chief and the two associate editors of the relevant section (science or practice). Based on this review it will be decided if the manuscript will go into full review by two independent reviewers or is rejected at this point. Independent reviews will be blind, meaning that the reviewers will not know the names of the submitting authors, nor the authors the name of the reviewers. Based on the recommendations and comments of the two independent reviewers a decision about rejection, acceptance or likely acceptance after revision will be made. The final decision lies with the editorial team.

We aim to respond to submitting authors about acceptance for full review within 2 weeks, and after that, if a full review takes place, we aim to provide feedback after an additional 8 weeks.

Articles will be published online as soon as they have been accepted by the editorial team and revised/edited. Issues of each Journal will be officially announced when completed.

Articles can be submitted at any time for review via the online submission system.

Instructions for Authors

General instructions, for both science and practice articles

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice (PAIJ) asks authors to follow the APA guidelines for manuscript style and citation of references (link to APA guidelines) on APA website).

Please prepare the manuscript in Times New Roman, 12, double spaced. For main headings see "sections of articles" in instructions for science and practice articles (print in bold). First level subheadings are printed in cursive bold, second level subheadings in cursive non-bold. Please do not use more than three levels of headings and do not numerate them.

Instructions for articles in the science section

For original research articles (this includes quantitative and qualitative research, mixed methods), please include the following sections: Abstract (300 words) plus 5 keywords, Introduction/Scientific Background, Research Question, Methods (including sample and instruments), Results, Discussion, Summary for Practitioners (3-4 manuscript pages), Acknowledgements, References. Please submit figures and tables as separate files (MS word). Maximum length: 30 pages (excluding extra pages for figures and tables, but including all other sections).

For review articles include: Introduction, Research Question, Methods, Results, Conclusions, Summary for Practitioners (3-4 pages), Acknowledgement, References. Maximum length: 30 pages (excluding extra pages for figures and tables, but including all other sections).

The summary for HAI and AAI practitioners (3 manuscript pages) should summarize the most important information from all sections, elaborating on the abstract to comment on the relevance of the information, especially the results, for the practice of AAI, companion animal ownership or human-animal interactions in general. If possible and feasible from your research findings, in your summary please consider the perspectives of both the animals and humans involved.

Instructions for articles in the practice section

Program Descriptions

Articles in this category can describe innovative programs delivering AAI or promoting the human-animal bond and human-animal interactions. Please focus on relevant aspects of your program for both humans and animals involved and include the following sections: Introduction, Program Description, Implementation (Number of participants, Risks, Problems etc.), Outcomes (including any outcome or evaluation measures applied), Conclusion. Maximum length: 20 manuscript pages.

Best Practices

Articles in this category can describe best practices in AAI and companion animal ownership or promoting the human-animal bond and human-animal interactions. This can include certain protocols or procedures to ensure the wellbeing of humans and animals in a specific setting, practical approaches to increase the benefits for the humans and animals in this interaction, implementation of handbooks, regulations or codes of practice, training methods, evaluation/quality assurance, or similar topics. Maximum length: 20 manuscript pages.


Articles in this category can describe or review education, training programs and accreditation protocols for AAI practitioners/those involved in the delivery of AAI. Please include details on scope (target group, education level e.g. postgraduate or CPD), format (e.g. online or practical or mixed etc.), content overview, accreditation or certification process if applicable and any follow-up evaluation of the training. Maximum length: 20 manuscript pages.

Other articles

We encourage authors to submit articles on topics such as ethics, law, hygiene, zoonoses/allergies, policies, politics, animal welfare, or other aspects as long as they are relevant for animal-assisted interventions, companion animal ownership or human-animal interactions. Articles should focus on benefits or risks for either the human, the animal, or both or advance the understanding of issues affecting the human-animal bond. The structure of the article depends on the topic and is up to the author. Maximum length: 20 manuscript pages.