Four features in the early environment and experience of gnotobiotic piglets which could be regarded as stressors were handling, temperature change, delay in initial feeding, and absence of maternal bonding and reassurance. Such factors are quite sufficient to account for behavioural differences between normal and gnotobiotic piglets. The initial restless activity and high number of squeals in the gnotobiotes, together with later silence and inactivity suggest the primary and secondary reaction to stress seen in other animals. The differences are also great enough to account for losses to the gnotobiotes, despite their protection from normal environmental hazards.
|Publication Title||Applied Animal Ethology|
|Author Address||Bedford Coll., London NW1 4NS, UK.|
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