In this study, we dealt with 11 species of non-human primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behaviour as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviours for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behaviour exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behaviour autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviours. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behaviour, autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behaviour than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviours than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behaviour exhibited by non-human primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive non-human primates probably is critical in the development of behavioural pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.
|Publication Title||Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science|
|Publisher||Taylor & Francis|
|Author Address||Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India.firstname.lastname@example.org|
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