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Handling, electric goad, and head restraint: effects on calves' behavior

By L. A. Goonewardene, M. A. Price, J. M. Stookey, P. A. Day, G. Minchau

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96 weaned calves (48 bulls and 48 heifers) were allocated in a 2 x 2 x 2 arrangement to 3 treatments each with 2 levels: calves handled every 10 days or 20 days; an electric goad used or not used; and head gate restrained or not restrained. Behaviour responses were measured by 5 incremental progressive force requirement (PFR) categories and transit time (TT). The PFRs were transformed to maximum force scores (MFS) for analysis. TT was the time taken for calves to move 11 m along a chute. During the study, 52%, 36%, 5%, 3% and 5% of the cattle were observed in Categories 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Cattle handled every 10 days showed a 36.0% higher MFS (p

Publication Title Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science
Volume 3
Issue 1
Pages 5-22
ISBN/ISSN 1088-8705 (Print), 1532-7604 (Online)
Publisher Taylor & Francis
DOI 10.1207/S15327604JAWS0301_2
Language English
Author Address Animal Industry Division, Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development, Edmonton, Alberta, T6H 5T6, Canada.
Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  1. Animal behavior
  2. Animal husbandry
  3. Animal rights
  4. Animals
  5. Animal welfare
  6. Behavior and behavior mechanisms
  7. Bovidae
  8. Calves
  9. Cattle
  10. Handling
  11. Mammals
  12. peer-reviewed
  13. restraint of animals
  14. Ruminants
  15. ungulates
  16. vertebrates
  17. Weight
  1. peer-reviewed