The concept of refinement is an important issue in the field of laboratory animal science. Refinement-based research aims to improve animal welfare, to increase the reliability of experimental outcome, and to diminish variation. In search of refinement of experimental techniques, this study investigated whether urinary corticosterone can be used as a noninvasive measure of acute stress in mice.
|Publication Title||Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science|
|Publisher||Taylor & Francis|
|Author Address||Department of Animals, Science, and Society, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80166, 3508 TD Utrecht, Netherlands.email@example.com|
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