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Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants

By G. Wittemyer

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Abstract

Declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. This is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. Whereas development theory links natural resource use to social-economic conditions, few empirical studies of the effect of economic downturns on wild animal species have been conducted. I assessed the relations between African elephant (Loxodonta africana) mortality and human-caused wounds in Samburu, Kenya and (1) livestock and maize prices (measures of local economic conditions), (2) change in national and regional gross domestic product (GDP) (measures of macroeconomic conditions), and (3) the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (a correlate of primary productivity). In addition, I analyzed household survey data to determine the attitudes of local people toward protected areas and wild animals in the area. When cattle prices in the pastoralist study region were low, human-caused wounds to and adult mortality of elephants increased. The NDVI was negatively correlated with juvenile mortality, but not correlated with adult mortality. Changes in Kenyan and East Asian (primary market for ivory) GDP did not explain significant variation in mortality. Increased human wounding of elephants and elephant mortality during periods of low livestock prices (local economic downturns) likely reflect an economically driven increase in ivory poaching. Local but not macroeconomic indices explained significant variation in mortality, likely due to the dominance of the subsistence economy in the study area and its political and economic isolation. My results suggest economic metrics can serve as effective indicators of changes in human use of and resulting effects on natural resources. Such information can help focus management approaches (e.g., antipoaching effort or proffering of alternative occupational opportunities) that address variation in local activities that threaten plant and animal populations.

Date 2011
Publication Title Conservation Biology
Volume 25
Issue 5
Pages 1002-1009
ISBN/ISSN 0888-8892
DOI 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01713.x
Language English
Author Address Department of Fish, Wildlife and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. g.wittemyer@colostate.edu
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Tags
  1. ACP Countries
  2. Africa
  3. Agriculture
  4. Animal husbandry
  5. Attitudes
  6. Biological resources
  7. Commonwealth of Nations
  8. Corn
  9. Crops
  10. Developed countries
  11. Economics
  12. Elephants
  13. Grasses
  14. Gross national product
  15. Kenya
  16. Livestock
  17. Maize
  18. Mammals
  19. mortality
  20. natural resources
  21. Plants
  22. poaching
  23. prices
  24. recession
  25. subsistence
  26. Wild animals