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Randomized trial examines effects of equine facilitated learning on adolescents' basal cortisol levels

By P. Pendry, A. N. Smith, S. M. Roeter

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Although equine facilitated programs have gained in popularity over the last decade, virtually nothing is known about the causal effects of equine facilitated interventions on human development and well-being. Researchers conducted a randomized trial to determine the effects of an 11-week equine facilitated learning program on the activity of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis of fifth through eighth graders through salivary cortisol levels. Children (N=131) referred by school counselors and recruited from the community were randomly assigned to either an experimental (N=53) or waitlisted condition (N=60). Six samples of salivary cortisol were collected in participants' own home over two consecutive days at pretest, and another set of six samples were collected at posttest in both groups of children. Children in the experimental group who participated in a series of once-weekly, 90-minute sessions of equine facilitated activities had lower afternoon cortisol levels (F(1, 112)=8.56, p=.017; d=.48) and lower total cortisol concentration per waking hour (F(1, 112)=11.12, p=.017, d=.46) at posttest, compared to waitlisted children. Multivariate regression analyses showed that program effects were independent from baseline levels of child cortisol, child gender, age, and referral status.

Publication Title Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin
Volume 2
Issue 1
Pages 80-97
Language English
Author Address Department of Human Development, Washington State University, Johnson Tower 523, Pullman, WA 99164,
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Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  1. Adolescents
  2. Adrenal glands
  3. Animal behavior
  4. Animals
  5. APEC countries
  6. Children
  7. Countries
  8. Developed countries
  9. Horses
  10. Humans
  11. Hydrocortisone
  12. Hypothalamus
  13. Learning
  14. Mammals
  15. Men
  16. North America
  17. OECD countries
  18. peer-reviewed
  19. Physiology and biochemistry
  20. pituitary gland
  21. Primates
  22. Relationships
  23. saliva
  24. Schools
  25. Social psychology and social anthropology
  26. ungulates
  27. United States of America
  28. vertebrates
  29. Washington
  1. peer-reviewed