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Evaluation of a novel rodenticide: acute sub-lethal effects of a methaemoglobin-inducing agent

By R. J. Quy, T. J. Gibson, M. S. Lambert, C. T. Eason, N. G. Gregory

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Abstract

In a series of experiments the welfare of para-aminovalerophenone (PAVP) sub-lethally poisoned rats ( Rattus norvegicus) was assessed. The experiments: (i) examined the acute methaemoglobin (MetHb) profile over time; (ii) refined the LD50 estimate for PAVP in adult female rats; (iii) developed and validated three neurological tests; and (iv) assessed rats for neurological deficit following prolonged methaemoglobinaemia. The results from the first three experiments were used to refine the sub-lethal study. In the sub-lethal experiment 20 rats were gavaged with a single dose of 40 mg kg -1 PAVP (based on an LD50 estimate of 43.3 mg kg -1). Control rats (n=10) were treated with the carrier only. Eleven (surviving) PAVP-treated rats and controls were assessed over a two-week period. Rats were tested for forelimb grip strength, stability on an inclined plane and the ability to remove tape wrapped around a forepaw in order to determine deficits in motor functions and sensorimotor integration. Signs of recovery began 3-6 h post-dosing, with all animals showing no outward signs of poisoning within 48 h, and over the 14-day post-treatment monitoring period they gained weight and increased their food consumption. There was no significant overall difference in performance between PAVP-treated and control rats in any of the three neurological tests. In the inclined plane test, performance of sub-lethally PAVP-poisoned rats appeared to be temporarily impaired with treated animals slipping at a lower angle than controls on day two. During the tape removal test, four PAVP-treated rats failed to remove the tape within the 3-min time limit on one occasion each (4/77 occasions) up to seven days post-dosing. The severity and duration of signs following acute sub-lethal PAVP poisoning appeared to be lower than those reported for existing rodenticides. It is likely that the results presented in this study extend to other MetHb-inducers.

Publication Title Animal Welfare
Volume 24
Issue 4
Pages 427-436
ISBN/ISSN 0962-7286
DOI 10.7120/09627286.24.4.427
Language English
Author Address Animal and Plant Health Agency, York, UK.tgibson@rvc.ac.uk
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Tags
  1. Animal models
  2. Animals
  3. Animal welfare
  4. Brazil
  5. Developing countries
  6. Effect
  7. Evaluation
  8. Feeding
  9. Hemoglobin
  10. Latin America
  11. Mammals
  12. models
  13. monitoring
  14. nervous system
  15. peer-reviewed
  16. Pesticides and Drugs
  17. Poisoning
  18. Rats
  19. rodenticides
  20. Rodents
  21. South America
  22. stability
  23. Threshold Countries
  24. toxicity
  25. toxicology
  26. United States of America
  27. vertebrates
Badges
  1. peer-reviewed