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Development and Psychometric Testing of the Dogs and Walking Survey (DAWGS)

By Elizabeth Richards, Meghan H. McDonough, Nancy E. Edwards, Roseann M. Lyle, Philip J. Troped

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Dog owners represent 40% of the population, a promising audience to increase population levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a new instrument to assess social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs related to dog walking. Methods: Dog owners (N=431) completed the Dogs and WalkinG Survey (DAWGS). Survey items assessed dog walking behaviors, and self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies for dog walking. Test-retest reliability was assessed among 252 (58%) survey respondents who completed the survey twice. Factorial validity and factorial invariance by age and walking level were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Results: DAWGS items demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability (r=.39-.79; k=.41-.89). Acceptable model fit was found for all subscales. All subscales were invariant by age and walking level, except self-efficacy, which showed mixed evidence of invariance. Conclusions: The DAWGS is a psychometrically sound instrument for examining individual and interpersonal correlates of dog walking.


Katie Carroll

Date 2013
Publication Title School of Nursing Faculty Publications
Publisher Purdue University
DOI 10.1080/02701367.2013.839935
Language English
Additional Language English
Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  1. Animal roles
  2. Development
  3. Dogs
  4. Exercise
  5. Health
  6. Mammals
  7. Pet ownership
  8. Pets and companion animals
  9. physical activity
  10. Psychometrics
  11. Walking