The HABRI Foundation is calling for research proposals to investigate the health outcomes of pet ownership and/or animal-assisted activity or therapy, both for the people and the animals involved. To learn more, visit https://habri.org/grants/funding-opportunities/ close

 
You are here: Home / Journal Articles / An international comparison of female and male students' attitudes to the use of animals. (Special issue: Minding animals: Emerging issues concerning our relationships with other animals.) / About

An international comparison of female and male students' attitudes to the use of animals. (Special issue: Minding animals: Emerging issues concerning our relationships with other animals.)

By C. Phillips, S. Izmirli, J. Aldavood, M. Alonso, Bi Choe, A. Hanlon, A. Handziska, G. Illmann, L. Keeling, M. Kennedy, Gwi Lee, V. Lund, C. Mejdell, V. Pelagic, T. Rehn

View Resource (HTM)

Licensed under

Category Journal Articles
Abstract

Previous research has demonstrated that in households where the male partner is more dominant, there is convergence in male and female attitudes towards animals, whereas if the female partner is empowered they exhibit greater empathy towards animals than the male partner. We tested this theory of 'female empowered empathy' internationally in a survey of female and male students' attitudes towards use of animals, conducted in 11 Eurasian countries: China, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Iran, Ireland, South Korea, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Spain and Sweden. Gender empowerment was estimated for each country using the Gender Empowerment Measure designed by the United Nations. The survey was administered via the internet in universities within countries, and 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responses from 102 universities were received. Respondents rated the acceptability of 43 major concerns about human use of animals, and the importance of 13 world social issues, including animal protection, environmental protection and sustainable development. Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males. There was a positive correlation between the Gender Empowerment Measure and the ratio of female to male concern for animal welfare and rights, but not for other world issues. Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much greater concern than males for animal issues, whereas in other countries the responses of males and females were more similar. Across countries female students were more likely to avoid meat and less likely to avoid eggs, milk and seafood than male students, and were more likely to have kept pets than males. Females rated cats as more sentient than males did. The results demonstrate that females have greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, and that this is more likely to be expressed in countries where females are relatively empowered, suggesting that 'emancipated female empathy' operates across countries as well as at a local level.

Date 2011
Publication Title Animals
Volume 1
Issue 1
Pages 7-26
ISBN/ISSN 2076-2615
Language English
Author Address Centre for Animal Welfare and Ethics, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia. sizmirli@selcuk.edu.tr sja@ut.ac.ir marta.alonso@unileon.es bi.choe@samsung.com alison.hanlon@ucd.ie anastasijahandziska@yahoo.com illmannova.gudrun@vuzv.cz linda.keeling@hmh.slu.se Therese.Rehn@hmh.slu.se Mark.Kennedy@anglia.ac.uk labvet@konkuk.ac.kr cecilie.mejdell@vetinst.no pelagicv@eunet.rs c.phillips@uq.edu.au
Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Tags
  1. Animal rights
  2. Animal welfare
  3. APEC countries
  4. Asia
  5. Attitudes
  6. Balkans
  7. British Isles
  8. China
  9. Commonwealth of Nations
  10. Czech Republic
  11. Developed countries
  12. Europe
  13. Females
  14. Great Britain
  15. Iran
  16. Ireland
  17. Mammals
  18. Mediterranean region
  19. Men
  20. Middle East
  21. Norway
  22. OECD countries
  23. peer-reviewed
  24. Pets and companion animals
  25. Primates
  26. Scandinavia
  27. sex differences
  28. South Korea
  29. Spain
  30. students
  31. surveys
  32. Sweden
  33. Threshold Countries
  34. United Kingdom
Badges
  1. peer-reviewed