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Effect of mountain biking on red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Kaupanger, Norway

By Janneke Scholten

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Human outdoor activities, like mountain biking, often affect animal behaviour. Ungulates might avoid roads and trails, and increase their avoidance with increasing human activity. Recently, biking on forest trails has increased considerably in Norway, but we still have limited knowledge about how forest biking may affect wildlife. In this study, I used pellet group counts and camera traps to study the effect of biking trails on red deer occurrence in Kaupanger, Norway. Based on pellet group counts, red deer avoided biking trails up to 40 m. The camera trap data showed that there was a tendency of a decreased deer occurrence with increasing human activity (trail width) during the day. Furthermore, males reacted stronger to increasing human activity than females. My findings imply that mountain biking has an effect on red deer. A further increase in biking may result in a higher avoidance and, thus, less suitable habitat for red deer in the forest area.


Katie Carroll

Date 2016
Pages 28
Publisher Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Department Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management
Degree Master of Science
Language English
University Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  1. Animal roles
  2. Animals in culture
  3. Animal welfare
  4. Bicycling
  5. Deer
  6. human-animal conflict
  7. Human-animal interactions
  8. human-wildlife interactions
  9. Mammals
  10. Nature
  11. Norway
  12. outdoor recreation
  13. Wild animals