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You are here: Home / Journal Articles / Leptospirosis in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: An Ecosystem Approach in the Animal-Human Interface / About

Leptospirosis in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: An Ecosystem Approach in the Animal-Human Interface

By Maria Cristina Schneider, Patricia Najera, Martha M. Pereira, Gustavo Machado, Celso B. dos Anjos, Rogerio O. Rodrigues, Gabriela M. Cavagni, Claudia Munoz-Zanzi, Luis G. Corbellini, Daniel F. Buss, Sylvain Aldighieri, Marcos A. Espinal

Category Journal Articles
Abstract

Background

Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone neglected disease that affects humans and animals, mostly in vulnerable populations. The One Health approach is a recommended strategy to identify drivers of the disease and plan for its prevention and control. In that context, the aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of human cases of leptospirosis in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to explore possible drivers. Additionally, it sought to provide further evidence to support interventions and to identify hypotheses for new research at the human-animal-ecosystem interface.

Methodology and findings

The risk for human infection was described in relation to environmental, socioeconomic, and livestock variables. This ecological study used aggregated data by municipality (all 496). Data were extracted from secondary, publicly available sources. Thematic maps were constructed and univariate analysis performed for all variables. Negative binomial regression was used for multivariable statistical analysis of leptospirosis cases. An annual average of 428 human cases of leptospirosis was reported in the state from 2008 to 2012. The cumulative incidence in rural populations was eight times higher than in urban populations. Variables significantly associated with leptospirosis cases in the final model were: Parana/Paraiba ecoregion (RR: 2.25; CI95%: 2.03–2.49); Neossolo Litolítico soil (RR: 1.93; CI95%: 1.26–2.96); and, to a lesser extent, the production of tobacco (RR: 1.10; CI95%: 1.09–1.11) and rice (RR: 1.003; CI95%: 1.002–1.04).

Conclusion

Urban cases were concentrated in the capital and rural cases in a specific ecoregion. The major drivers identified in this study were related to environmental and production processes that are permanent features of the state. This study contributes to the basic knowledge on leptospirosis distribution and drivers in the state and encourages a comprehensive approach to address the disease in the animal-human-ecosystem interface.

Submitter

Katie Carroll

Date 2015
Publication Title PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Volume 9
Issue 11
Pages 20
Publisher PLOS One
DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004095
URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004095
Language English
Additional Language English
Tags
  1. Animal diseases
  2. Animal health and hygiene
  3. Animal roles
  4. Animal welfare
  5. Bacteria
  6. Brazil
  7. Ecosystems
  8. Health
  9. Human-animal interactions
  10. Veterinary medicine
  11. Zoonoses