Religion affects how groups of people view animals, and these views can vary between writers within the same religion. Both the author of the Gospel of Mark and the author of “The Incarnation of the Word of God” present animals as subordinate to humans, revealing hierarchies within the cultures of their original audiences. The Gospel of Mark offers a more inclusive view of animals than “The Incarnation of the Word of God” by inferring that the purpose of animals is for human use and to reveal God, whereas Athanasius believes their purpose is solely to offer a foil to the immortality of humankind.
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