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How environmental enrichment affects behavioral and glucocorticoid responses in captive blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna)

By Ana Claudia de Almeida, Rupert Palme, Nei Moreira

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Abstract

Captive animals are susceptible to chronic stress due to restricted space, lack of hiding places, presence of visitors, or the lack of resources that promote physical and mental stimuli. In birds, chronic stress can promote stereotypes, self-mutilation, feather picking, chewing on cage bars and...

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Tags
  1. Abnormal behavior
  2. Animal welfare
  3. Corticosteroids
  4. Quality of life
  5. Stress