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Evaluation of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead and Mercury Contamination in Over-the-Counter Available Dry Dog Foods With Different Animal Ingredients (Red Meat, Poultry, and Fish)

By Hyun-Tae Kim, John P. Loftus, Sabine Mann, Joseph J. Wakshlag

Category Journal Articles
Abstract

Objectives: To examine the relative levels of heavy metals and arsenic content in commercial dog foods (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury) of 51 over-the-counter maintenance or all-life-stage dry dog foods. All products were chosen and segregated based on meat sources (fish, poultry, red-meat—17 products from each category) as animal protein sources being the primary contaminated ingredient due to bioaccumulation. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed on products that were classified as fish, red meat (beef, pork, venison, bison) or poultry (chicken, turkey, duck) based. A non-Gaussian data distribution for each heavy metal within category distribution led to non-parametric statistical testing and median (range) descriptive statistics. Comparison to average human consumption based on mg/megacalorie (Mcal)was also examined. Results: Based on caloric consumption, total arsenic and heavy metal consumption is higher in dogs than in humans; however chronic toxic exposure levels are highly unlikely. Fish-based diets had significantly higher arsenic, cadmium and mercury content than the poultry or red meat-based diets (p < 0.01). Red meat-based diets (beef, venison and bison) had higher lead concentrations than poultry and fish-based diets (p < 0.03). Clinical Significance: Based on the findings, commercial dog foods appear to be safe for chronic consumption and concentrations of the heavy metals were dependent on primary protein sources. Overall, poultry-based diets had relatively lower heavy metal and arsenic content than red meat and fish-based diets. Despite the safety of most pet foods occasional outliers for lead render some concern for chronic exposure based on other species toxicity data and a lack of data in dogs.

Submitter

Marcy Wilhelm-South

Purdue University

Date 2018
Publication Title Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Volume 5
Pages 8
DOI 10.3389/fvets.2018.00264
URL https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00264/full
Language English
Additional Language English
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Tags
  1. Animal roles
  2. Dogs
  3. Foods
  4. open access
  5. pet foods
  6. Pets and companion animals
  7. safety
Badges
  1. open access