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Spatial and Simultaneous Seroprevalence of Anti-Leptospira Antibodies in Owners and Their Domiciled Dogs in a Major City of Southern Brazil

By Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Thais Cabral Monica, Ana Carolina Miura, Micheline Sahyun Romanelli, Lucienne Garcia Pretto Giordano, Roberta Lemos Freire, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Camila Marinelli Martins, Alexander Welker Biondo, Isabela Machado Serrano, Thiago Henrique Carneiro Rios Lopes, Renato Barbosa Reis, Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes, Federico Costa, Elsio Wunder, Albert Icksang Ko, Italmar Teodorico Navarro

Category Journal Articles
Abstract

Although leptospirosis has been considered a major concern in urban areas, no study to date has spatially and simultaneously compared both owner and dog serology in households of major cities. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to assess the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, evaluate associated risk factors and conduct spatial analyses in 565 randomly selected households, which included 597 dog owners and 729 dogs in Londrina, Southern Brazil. Seropositivity by MAT were detected in in 11/597 (1.84%) owners and in 155/729 (21.26%) dogs. The risk factors were evaluated with logistic regression analysis and spatial factors and case distribution were evaluated with kernel density analyses. The sera of 14/155 (9.03%) dogs reacted for more than one serovar with the same titer. Canicola was the most frequent serogroup, detected in 3/11 (27.27%) owners and 76/155 (49.03%) dogs. The highest titer among the owners was 1:3,200 and was detected in the same household with a titer of 1:800 in the dog. Simultaneous owner-dog seropositivity was found in 7/565 (1.23%) households, with three reacted against serogroup Canicola. Positive owners were detected in 4/565 (0.70%) households and positive dogs were detected in 141/565 (24.95%) households. The associated risks of infection for dogs were different from those associated with infection in owners. Risk analyses for Canicola also identified specific factors of infection. Regardless of owner and dog cases were not statistically clustered, the kernel map has shown dog positivity occurrence in the same hot locations and near positive owners. The dependent variable analysis and logit model suggested a greater likelihood of peri-domiciliary contact with Leptospira. In conclusion, exposure to Leptospira infection was significantly higher in dogs than in their owners and human cases spatially overlapped dog cases, implicating dogs as potential environmental sentinels for this disease. In addition, the associated risk may vary according to serogroup, and the observed simultaneous Canicola seropositivity of owner and dog has suggested intradomicile-transmitted infection.

Submitter

Marcy Wilhelm-South

Purdue University

Date 2021
Publication Title Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Volume 7
Pages 15
DOI 10.3389/fvets.2020.580400
URL https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2020.580400/full
Language English
Additional Language English
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Tags
  1. Animal roles
  2. Animal welfare
  3. Brazil
  4. Dogs
  5. One Health
  6. open access
  7. Pets and companion animals
  8. Zoonoses
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  1. open access