The HABRI Foundation is calling for research proposals to investigate the health outcomes of pet ownership and/or animal-assisted activity or therapy, both for the people and the animals involved. To learn more, visit close

You are here: Home / Journal Articles / Dogs and wolves differ in their response allocation to their owner/caregiver or food in a concurrent choice procedure / About

Dogs and wolves differ in their response allocation to their owner/caregiver or food in a concurrent choice procedure

By L. Isernia, C. D. L. Wynne, L. House, E. N. Feuerbacher

View Resource (HTM)

Licensed under

Category Journal Articles


Dogs and wolves both show attachment-like behaviors to their owners/caregivers, including exploring more in the presence of the owner/caregiver, and greeting the owner/caregiver more effusively after an absence. Concurrent choice studies can elucidate dogs’ and wolves’ relationship to their owners/caregivers by assessing their preference for the owner/caregiver compared to other stimuli. While previous research has used concurrent choice paradigms to evaluate dogs’ and wolves’ preference between humans giving social interaction or humans giving food, no research has explored their preferences for an owner/caregiver compared to food when the food is not delivered by a human. In the current study, we investigated whether dogs and hand-reared wolves preferred their owner/caregiver or food, unassociated with a human, when they had been equally deprived of each stimulus (at least 4 hours). Each canid experienced four trials; we measured first choice and time spent with each alternative. Dogs overall did not show a preference for the owner or food. Wolves, on the other hand, tended to show a preference for food in both measures. We observed a range of individual variation in both measures, although dogs showed more individual variation. The differences we observed between dogs and wolves align with prior research comparing wolf and dog behavior directed towards humans; however, the reasons for this differential responding could be due to a variety of factors beyond phylogeny.

Date 2022
Publication Title PeerJ
Volume 10
Issue 12834
DOI 10.7717/peerj.12834
Author Address Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, Virginia,
Additional Language English
Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  1. Animal behavior
  2. Animals
  3. Anthrozoology
  4. Behavioral research
  5. Biological resources
  6. Canidae
  7. Canine
  8. Carnivores
  9. Comparisons
  10. Dogs
  11. Ecology
  12. Evolution
  13. Feeding behavior
  14. Mammals
  15. open access
  16. Pets and companion animals
  17. Social behavior
  18. stimuli
  19. vertebrates
  20. Wild animals
  21. Wolves
  22. Zoology
  1. open access