The HABRI Foundation is calling for research proposals to investigate the health outcomes of pet ownership and/or animal-assisted activity or therapy, both for the people and the animals involved. To learn more, visit close

You are here: Home / Journal Articles / The View of the French Dog Breeders in Relation to Female Reproduction, Maternal Care and Stress during the Peripartum Period / About

The View of the French Dog Breeders in Relation to Female Reproduction, Maternal Care and Stress during the Peripartum Period

By Natalia R. dos Santos, Alexandra Beck, Alain Fontbonne

Category Journal Articles

In France, as in many other western countries, dogs are an important part of the society as pets or working animals. The exact demand for puppies in France is unknown, as is the proportion of dogs coming from different breeding sources. Nevertheless, the origin of puppies is important since young dogs from puppy mills and pet stores appear to be more likely to develop behavioral disorders. Puppies coming from responsible breeders, on the other hand, tend to be better adapted. In well-managed kennels, an explanation for these behavioral differences may be associated with greater contact of litters with the dam and humans. Another factor that might influence a dog’s temperament and character is maternal behavior. Although recent studies have shown that the quality of maternal care in dogs is important, direct effects on the development of behavioral problems such as fearfulness or noise sensitivity are still controversial. To better understand the view of breeders, due to an increased interest in maternal care of dogs, an online questionnaire was developed to assess the dog breeders’ profiles and to explore their perception of normal maternal and stress-related behaviors during the peripartum period. In addition, the management of the female during this critical time was queried. Three-hundred and forty-five French dog breeders, representing 91 breeds, completed the online survey. Considering the demographics of the responders, breeding activity in France is mostly family-based with 76% raising two breeds of dogs that produce, on average, five litters/year. Around 60% of the breeders use progesterone levels to determine breeding date. The whelping date is estimated using multiple criteria and most labors and deliveries happen under human supervision. The majority of behaviors associated to good maternal care are defined by the vast majority as being related to more attention of the bitch towards the puppies with the frequency of nursing and licking being important clues. Globally, the peripartum is perceived as a stressful period and to minimize stress and reassure the bitch the favored method used is increasing human presence. Problems related to maternal behavior were described, notably with primiparous bitches. 


Marcy Wilhelm-South

Purdue University

Date 2020
Publication Title Animals
Volume 10
Issue 1
Pages 14
Publisher MDPI
DOI 10.3390/ani10010159
Language English
Additional Language English
Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  1. Animal roles
  2. Breeding
  3. Dogs
  4. Mammals
  5. Maternal behavior
  6. open access
  7. Pets and companion animals
  8. Stress
  9. surveys
  1. open access