Elective gonadectomy in the dog is a topic of interest for clinicians, pet-owners, and society. Although canine prostatic neoplasia (CPN) has a low incidence (0.35%), reports of an increased risk for castrated dogs attract attention and cause concern in pet-owners. Our aim is to provide professionals and non-professionals with a detailed description of this possible side effect of gonadectomy in the dog. The mean age at diagnosis of CPN ranges from 8.5 to 11.2 years. Medium to large size breeds are more frequently affected. Symptoms and findings of non-invasive examinations are not pathognomonic, therefore, cytological or histological examinations are needed for diagnosis. Overall, the incidence of metastasis reaches up to 80%, yet lung metastasis reportedly has no negative impact on median survival time (MST). It has been reported that castrated males have a significantly higher MST than intact males. Differences in inclusion criteria for studied populations make a comparison of studies difficult. Citation of odds ratios without consideration of the context of the reference may result in premature conclusions. We conclude that elective gonadectomy of adult male dogs under six years of age cannot be excluded from the veterinary practice due to concern of causing CPN until clear and strong evidence is available.
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