Selective breeding has led to gradual changes at the genome level of horses. Deciphering selective pressure patterns is progressive to understand how breeding strategies have shaped the sport horse genome; although, little is known about the genomic regions under selective pressures in sport horse breeds. The major goal of this study was to shed light on genomic regions and biological pathways under selective pressures in sport horses. In this study, whole-genome sequences of 16 modern sport and 35 non-sport horses were used to investigate the genomic selective signals of sport performance, by employing fixation index, nucleotide diversity, and Tajima’s D approaches. A total number of 49 shared genes were identified using these approaches. The functional enrichment analysis for candidate genes revealed novel significant biological processes related to musculoskeletal system development, such as limb development and morphogenesis, having been targeted by selection in sport breeds.
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