Reimagining Healthcare: Human-Animal Bond Support as a Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Public Health Intervention
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The emergence of human-animal support services (HASS)-services provided to help keep people and their companion animals together-in the United States has been driven by two global public health crises. Despite such impetuses and an increasing recognition of One Health approaches, HASS are generally not recognized as public health interventions. The Ottawa Charter, defining health as well-being and resources for living and calling for cross-sector action to advance such, provides a clear rationale for locating HASS within a public health framework. Drawing from Ottawa Charter tenets and using the United States as a case study, we: (1) recognize and explicate HASS as public health resources for human and animal well-being and (2) delineate examples of HASS within the three-tiered public health intervention framework. HASS examples situated in the three-tier framework reveal a public health continuum for symbiotic well-being and health. Humans and their respective companion animals may need different levels of intervention to optimize mutual well-being. Tenets of the Ottawa Charter provide a clear rationale for recognizing and promoting HASS as One Health public health interventions; doing so enables cross-sector leveraging of resources and offers a symbiotic strategy for human and animal well-being.
|Publication Title||Int J Environ Res Public Health|
|Author Address||OneHealth People-Animal Wellness Services (OHPAWS), Toledo, OH 43606, USA.Center for Human-Animal Interaction (CHAI), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA.Departments of Pediatrics and Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA.Children's Hospital of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23230, USA.|
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