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Review of Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens of Dogs in Nigeria: Missing Link in One Health Approach

By Dorcas A. Gado, David O. Ehizibolo, Clement A. Meseko, Neil E. Anderson, Peter W. W. Lurz

Category Journal Articles
Abstract

Dogs live in close contact with humans as pets, for hunting, for security, and as a source of income. In addition, the meat is also consumed by some tribes in Nigeria. Dogs could therefore serve as reservoirs, carriers, and transmitters of zoonotic diseases. This review evaluates the literature from 2000 to 2020 for the prevalence and incidence of zoonotic pathogens associated with dogs in Nigeria. The results obtained show that overall, parasites constituted a majority (64%) of the zoonotic pathogens (or species) identified in dog hosts. A good number of studies have examined the role of ticks in the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. Further, bacteria make up 22% of the zoonotic pathogens. From this study, it appears that rabies is the major pathogen in dogs for which there is reliable evidence linking contact between humans and dogs. Oyo State in southwestern Nigeria and Plateau State in north-central Nigeria were the most frequently studied states, while prevalence/disease surveillance studies constituted 80% of the overall papers assessed. Interdisciplinary collaborations as well as research and diagnosis policy amendments are missing links to fully appreciate the role of dogs in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in Nigeria. Policies should integrate a one health approach in the Nigerian health system, whereby diagnostic screening of humans and animals by physicians and veterinarians includes zoonotic pathogens for more accurate diagnosis and control.

Submitter

Marcy Wilhelm-South

Purdue University

Date 2023
Publication Title Zoonotic Diseases
Volume 3
Issue 2
Publisher MDPI
DOI 10.3390/zoonoticdis3020012
URL https://www.mdpi.com/2813-0227/3/2/12
Language English
Additional Language English
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Tags
  1. Animal health and hygiene
  2. Animal welfare
  3. Dogs
  4. Health
  5. Mammals
  6. Nigeria
  7. One Health
  8. open access
  9. Zoonoses
Badges
  1. open access