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Can we extrapolate from intensive to extensive conditions?

By M. C. Appleby

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Most studies of farm animal welfare have been carried out in intensive conditions. Considering the welfare of extensively farmed animals therefore raises questions of perceptions, processes and priorities. There are general perceptions that we are not responsible for the welfare of wild animals and that extensive conditions are good for welfare compared with intensive conditions. Yet there can be many problems for animals in extensive conditions, and these are clearly our responsibility. There has been considerable progress in understanding problems for welfare, and it is reasonable to expect that the processes known about will operate in all conditions. However, in extrapolating from intensive to extensive conditions the importance of exact circumstances should be remembered. Identification of priorities for the welfare of extensively farmed animals requires a systematic effort, which will be helped by collaboration with disciplines such as behavioural ecology.

Date 1996
Publication Title Applied Animal Behaviour Science
Volume 49
Issue 1
Pages 23-27
ISBN/ISSN 0168-1591
Language English
Author Address Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK.
Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  1. Animal behavior
  2. Animal rights
  3. Animal welfare
  4. Extension
  5. Intensive farming
  6. peer-reviewed
  1. peer-reviewed