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Factors influencing the behaviour and welfare of captive lion-tailed macaques in Indian zoos

By Mallapur Avanti, N. Waran, Sinha Anindya

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A behavioural study was conducted on 47 lion-tailed macaques housed in 13 zoos across India. An ethogram was constructed and behavioural observations conducted using qualitative sampling ad libitum, focal animal sampling and instantaneous scans. Sampling was conducted only during the day when visitors were present at the macaque enclosures. Stereotypic pacing was the most commonly exhibited behaviour. Abnormal behaviours were only exhibited by individuals that were confiscated from private owners and those that were born in zoos but never by animals caught from the wild. Active foraging behaviours, in turn, were influenced by an individual's gender and enclosure complexity. Female macaques autogroomed and lip-smacked more frequently than males, while individuals housed in groups initiated relatively more bouts of allogrooming than those housed in pairs. In general, the observed influence of environmental factors and social deprivation on the development of behavioural pathologies in lion-tailed macaques in Indian zoos emphasise the need for improving the current husbandry protocols and management practices for the improved welfare of these animals.

Date 2005
Publication Title Applied Animal Behaviour Science
Volume 91
Issue 3/4
Pages 337-353
ISBN/ISSN 0168-1591
DOI 10.1016/j.applanim.2004.10.002
Author Address Animal Behaviour and Welfare Group, Division of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG,
Additional Language English
Cite this work

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

  1. Abnormal behavior
  2. Animal behavior
  3. Animal rights
  4. Animal roles
  5. Animal welfare
  6. Asia
  7. Commonwealth of Nations
  8. Developed countries
  9. Deviant behavior
  10. Environment
  11. Feeding behavior
  12. India
  13. Macaques
  14. Mammals
  15. physical activity
  16. Primates
  17. sex differences
  18. Zoo and captive wild animals
  19. Zoological gardens
  20. Zoos