Extensive human presence and regular gentle handling improve growth, survival and immune competence in ostrich chicks
Contributor(s): Muvhali, Pfunzo T., Bonato, Maud, Engelbrecht, Anel, Malecki, Irek A., Cloete, Schalk W. P.
A total of 416 day-old ostrich chicks were randomly allocated to one of the three different husbandry practices for 3 months after hatch; HP1 (extensive human presence with gentle human voice, visual and gentle physical stimuli), HP2 (similar to HP1 but without physical stimuli) and S (human...
Experimental Control for the Ovariectomized Rat Model: Use of Sham Versus Nonmanipulated Animal
Contributor(s): Kruger, Marlena C., Morel, Patrick C. H.
One of 2 models required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for registration of a treatment for osteoporosis, the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, is widely used in scientific studies investigating sex hormone-deficient bone loss. The use of control nonhuman animals is critical because bone...
Evaluation of Enrichment for Reptiles in Zoos
Contributor(s): Eagan, Taylor
Studies on environmental enrichment for reptiles are lacking in the scientific literature. Although the literature reflects a limited take on reptile enrichment in the zoological community, it may not be the case in reality as enrichment is generally considered an important aspect of the care of...
Evaluation of a Community’s Risk for Canine Parvovirus and Distemper Using Antibody Testing and GIS Mapping of Animal Shelter Intakes
Contributor(s): Spindel, Miranda E., Krecic, Matthew R., Slater, Margaret R., Vigil, Nicole
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify where dogs with negative antibody tests to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) originated when entering a community shelter, using a commercially available ELISA antibody test and Geographic Information Systems mapping. Of 2745...
Evaluating the social structure of captive Rothschild’s giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi): Relevance to animal management and animal welfare
Contributor(s): Lewton, Jack, Rose, Paul E.
Social network analysis (SNA) is useful for evaluating management zoo regimes to ensure that any fitness benefits of sociality are preserved in captive-housed groups. This paper explores the association patterns of 13 giraffes housed at Longleat Safari Park, UK. Wild giraffes exhibit a...
Ethics of Animal Use
Contributor(s): Arthur, Kelly
2016Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science193320-3211088-870510.1080/10888705.2016.1168740text
An Estimate of the Number of Dogs in US Shelters in 2015 and the Factors Affecting Their Fate
Contributor(s): Woodruff, Kimberly, Smith, David R.
The objective of this study was to estimate the total number of shelters in the United States; estimate the number of dogs entering US shelters annually; determine what happens to the dogs that enter shelters; and identify the characteristics of shelters affecting the outcome of the dogs in their...
2018Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science211101-1011088-870510.1080/10888705.2017.1396838text
Equine Welfare in England and Wales: Exploration of Stakeholders' Understanding
Contributor(s): Horseman, Susan V., Buller, Henry, Mullan, Siobhan, Knowles, Toby G., Barr, Alistair R. S., Whay, Helen R.
Investigating how those responsible for the care of nonhuman animals understand the concept of animal welfare is important for animal welfare improvement. In-depth interviews with 31 equine stakeholders were used to explore their perceptions and understanding of welfare. The results showed the...
Equine Welfare Assessment: Exploration of British Stakeholder Attitudes Using Focus-Group Discussions
Contributor(s): Horseman, Susan V., Hockenhull, Jo, Buller, Henry, Mullan, Siobhan, Barr, Alistair R. S., Whay, Helen R.
The equine industry in Great Britain has not been subject to the same pressures as the farming industry to engage with welfare assessment, but this may change as concern about equine welfare increases. Stakeholder attitudes toward welfare assessment may impact the implementation of welfare...
Epidemiology of tattoo skin disease in captive common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Are males more vulnerable than females?
Contributor(s): Bressem, Marie-Françoise Van, Waerebeek, Koen Van, Duignan, Pádraig J.
Clinical and epidemiological features of tattoo skin disease (TSD) are reported for 257 common bottlenose dolphins held in 31 facilities in the Northern Hemisphere. Photographs and biological data of 146 females and 111 males were analyzed. Dolphins were classified into three age classes: 0–3...
Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes
Contributor(s): Reimer, Jéssica, Maia, Caroline Marques, Santos, Eliana Ferraz
Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the...
Environmental Enrichment Effect on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites and Captive Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) Behavior
Contributor(s): Coelho, Carlyle Mendes, Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini de, Guimarães, Marcelo Alcino de Barros Vaz, Young, Robert John
Environmental enrichment is a technique that may reduce the stress of nonhuman animals in captivity. Stress may interfere with normal behavioral expression and affect cognitive decision making. Noninvasive hormonal studies can provide important information about the stress statuses of animals....
Elephant Tourism in Thailand: A Review of Animal Welfare Practices and Needs
Contributor(s): Bansiddhi, Pakkanut, Brown, Janine L., Thitaram, Chatchote, Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak, Nganvongpanit, Korakot
Elephant tourism in Thailand has developed into an important socio-economic factor after a logging ban initiated in 1989 resulted in thousands of out-of-work elephants. However, the welfare of captive elephants has been a topic of intense debate among tourists, scientists and stakeholders because...
Effects of Video Footage Versus Photographs on Perception of Dog Behavioral Traits
Contributor(s): Pyzer, Chloe, Clarke, Lucy, Montrose, V. Tamara
Photographs are frequently used to promote adoption of dogs on rescue shelter websites. While physical traits are well illustrated via photographs, conveying a dog's behavioral traits is more problematic. Traits such as sociability, obedience, and friendliness are likely to be better displayed...
Effects of Two CO2 Stunning Methods on the Efficacy of Stunning and Blood Stress Indicators of Turkeys under Commercial Processing Conditions
Contributor(s): Guijarro, Angela, Mauri, Soledad, Aviles, Carmen, Peña, Francisco
The effect of CO2 gas-stunning methods (G1: 30% CO2 15 sec, 55% CO2 40 sec, 70% CO2 45 sec; G2: 30% CO2 15 sec, 80% CO2 85 sec) on the efficacy of stunning, blood stress indicators and meat quality of turkeys were assessed. A total of 375 turkeys (125 heavy males, 125 light males, and 125 light...
Effects of Short-Distance Recreational Mushing on Oxytocin, Gastrin, and Creatinine Kinase in Sled Dogs
Contributor(s): Leggieri, Leonardo Ramón, Marozzi, Antonela, Panebianco, Antonella, Gregorio, Pablo, Carmanchahi, Pablo
A considerable increase in creatinine kinase (CK) activity and gastrin hormone due to exercise has been observed in sled dogs during endurance mushing races; however, there have been no studies on sled dogs during recreational mushing. Although oxytocin hormone is involved in social behaviors and...
Effects of Overcheck Use on Stress Parameters and Welfare Implications in Driving Horses
Contributor(s): Bennett-Wimbush, K., J, Suagee-Bedore, Amstutz, M., Duthie, M.
Three sequential studies were performed to evaluate the effects of tying horses while wearing overchecks (strap from the bridle to backpad). In an observational study, horses (n = 305) wore high (HC), low (LC), or no overchecks (NC) with frequencies of 29.2%, 51.8% and 19.0% respectively. Study 1...
Effects of Oral Meloxicam and Topical Lidocaine on Pain associated Behaviors of Piglets Undergoing Surgical Castration
Contributor(s): Burkemper, M. C., Pairis-Garcia, M. D., Moraes, L. E., Park, R. M., Moeller, S. J.
The objective of this study was to find a practical means of reducing pain associated with surgical castration by evaluating the effects of oral meloxicam and topical lidocaine, separately and in combination, on behavioral indicators of pain in piglets. Two hundred thirty-five piglets were...
Effects of Metabolic Cage Housing on Rat Behavior and Performance in the Social Interaction Test
Contributor(s): Whittaker, Alexandra L., Lymn, Kerry A., Howarth, Gordon S.
Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the...