On-farm welfare assessment in cattle: validity, reliability and feasibility issues and future perspectives with special regard to the Welfare QualityReg. approach
Contributor(s): Knierim, U., Winckler, C.
This paper discusses the current state of development of on-farm cattle welfare assessment systems with special regard to the approach of Welfare QualityReg. that focuses on animal-related measures. The central criteria validity, reliability and feasibility are considered with regard to selected...
The response of untamed (unbroken) ponies to conditions of road transport
Contributor(s): Knowles, T. G., Brown, S. N., Pope, S. J., Nicol, C. J., Warriss, P. D., Weeks, C. A.
The response to a one-hour road journey was observed in 145 semi-feral ponies unused to handling. Ponies were transported singly or in groups of four or eight at a typical commercial 'high' stocking density or at a slightly reduced 'low' density (range 139 to 316 kg m-2). Blood samples were...
Welfare aspects of chick handling in broiler and laying hen hatcheries
Contributor(s): Knowles, T. G., Brown, S. N., Warriss, P. D., Butterworth, A., Hewitt, L.
Six commercial hatcheries were visited in the United Kingdom, three of which processed laying hen chicks and three of which processed broiler chicks. The accelerations experienced by the chicks passing through the handling systems were evaluated using miniature data logging accelerometers, which...
Immediate immobilisation of a Minke whale using a grenade harpoon requires striking a restricted target area
Contributor(s): Knowles, T. G., Butterworth, A.
Approximately 1500 Minke whales are killed annually under permit from the International Whaling Commission (IWC). This hunt supports a modest industry in Norway and in Japan; however, the welfare of whales during hunting and killing is such a cause of concern that in 1980 the IWC formed a...
Relation between parity and feed intake, fear of humans and social behaviour in non-lactating sows group-housed under various on-farm conditions
Contributor(s): Kongsted, A. G., Hermansen, J. E., Kristensen, T.
The number of group-housed, non-lactating sows is increasing rapidly in Europe. However, systematic information of the between-sow variation in animal welfare related factors under various on-farm conditions is lacking. Indicators of feed intake, fear of humans and social behaviour in...
Enrichment value of wooden blocks for farmed blue foxes ( Alopex lagopus )
Contributor(s): Korhonen, H., Niemela, P.
Wooden blocks (30x7 cm) were employed to clarify how such inanimate objects might serve to enrich the barren wire-mesh cages. In experiment 1, behavioural reactions of 8 male blue foxes to wooden blocks were videotaped between January and May. In experiment 2, 16 male blue foxes were housed...
Telemetry as a method for measuring the impact of housing conditions on rats' welfare
Contributor(s): Krohn, T. C., Hansen, A. K., Dragsted, N.
Various tools have been developed over previous years to study the welfare of laboratory animals. These include preference tests, which are commonly used to evaluate housing environments. Preference tests, however, have some pitfalls. They supply information only on the animals' present...
The effect of hiding enrichment on stress levels and behaviour of domestic cats ( Felis sylvestris catus ) in a shelter setting and the implications for adoption potential
Contributor(s): Kry, K., Casey, R.
This study investigates the effect of hiding enrichment on stress and behaviour of kennelled cats. Forty-three cats were studied either with a BC SPCA Hide & PerchTM box as enrichment, or with an open bed as control. Observations consisted of Stress Score, approach test and scan sample, recorded...
Are animals capable of deception or empathy? Implications for animal consciousness and animal welfare
Contributor(s): Kuczaj, S., Tranel, K., Trone, M., Hill, H.
Salivary cortisol and behaviour in an all-male group of western lowland gorillas ( Gorilla g. gorilla )
Contributor(s): Kuhar, C. W., Bettinger, T. L., Laudenslager, M. L.
While the use of salivary cortisol as an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation has increased rapidly in human studies, few non-human primate studies have used saliva samples. Nearly 300 h of behavioural data and over 400 saliva samples were collected from three young...
Reducing the number of animals used in behavioural genetic experiments using chromosome substitution strains
Contributor(s): Laarakker, M. C., Ohl, F., Lith, H. A. van
Chromosome substitution strains (also called consomic lines or strains) are strains in which a single, full-length chromosome from one inbred strain - the donor strain - has been transferred onto the genetic background of a second inbred strain - the host strain. Based on the results obtained...
Perching behaviour and preferences for different perch designs among laying hens
Contributor(s): Lambe, N. R., Scott, G. B.
Six laying hens were housed individually in litter-floored pens and were offered a choice of 3 pairs of contrasting perch types (experiments 1-3): a rectangular, wooden perch (control) and 2 thin, parallel, rectangular, wooden perches; control and a similar perch covered with foam and fabric; and...
Behaviour of laying hens negotiating perches at different heights
Contributor(s): Lambe, N. R., Scott, G. B., Hitchcock, D.
Four sets of 3 horizontal perches were positioned with respective gradients of 0 degrees , 30 degrees , 45 degrees or 60 degrees . Four groups of 15 ISA Brown laying hens were individually exposed to each treatment, being placed on the uppermost perch (Perch 1) with a food reward available at the...
Transcranial magnetic stunning of broilers: a preliminary trial to induce unconsciousness
Contributor(s): Lambooij, E., Anil, H., Butler, S. R., Reimert, H., Workel, L., Hindle, V.
This study was performed to identify whether non-focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with an adapted coil for broilers has the potential for use as a non-invasive stunning method for broilers. Application of the TMS probe resulted in dominance of theta and delta waves and appearance of...
Head-only electrical stunning and bleeding of African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ): assessment of loss of consciousness
Contributor(s): Lambooij, E., Kloosterboer, R. J., Gerritzen, M. A., Vis, J. W. van de
The objective was to evaluate the welfare implications of electrical stunning prior to gill-cutting of farmed African catfish as an alternative to live chilling in combination with gutting. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings, in combination with observation of...
Behavioural responses of park red and fallow deer to disturbance and effects on population performance
Contributor(s): Langbein, J., Putman, R. J.
The effects of disturbances by humans and dogs on deer in two London parks, Bushy Park and Richmond Park, were investigated. In most cases the effects of the disturbance was relatively minor, with the animals resuming their normal activity quickly after the encounter. There was no evidence that...
Is sleep in animals affected by prior waking experiences?
Contributor(s): Langford, F. M., Cockram, M. S.
Methods to assess changes in the mental state of animals in response to their environment can be used to provide information to enhance animal welfare. One of the most profound changes of mental state observable in mammals is the change between wakefulness and sleep. Sleeping mammals have...
Behaviour of a captive pair of clouded leopards ( Neofelis nebulosa ): introduction without injury
Contributor(s): Law, G., Tatner, P.
Breeding and animal welfare: practical and theoretical advantages of multi-trait selection
Contributor(s): Lawrence, A. B., Conington, J., Simm, G.
The traditional concerns about farm animal welfare have centred around the impact of intensive environments and management practices on the animals. This emphasis on the physical environment is changing, however, with greater consideration being given to animal factors and in particular to the...
Anticipation and memory as criteria for special welfare consideration
Contributor(s): Lea, S. E. G.