Re-integrating crops and livestock in Maine: an economic analysis of the potential for and profitability of integrated agricultural production
Contributor(s): Aaron K. Hoshide, Stewart N. Smith (adviser)
This thesis examines the profitability of and sustainability indicators for potato and dairy farms in Maine integrating crops and livestock in two different ways. The first is inter-farm coupling, where two or more specialized producers are close enough to exchange manure applications for crops...
The effect of one-session exposure treatment on selective processing and explicit memory bias in snake- and spider-fearful participants
Contributor(s): Karen L. Stanley-Kime
Unlike the empirically supported phenomenon of anxiety-induced selective processing bias, research on congruent explicit memory bias is inconclusive; indeed, there is evidence for recall decrements of threat-relevant information. There is also a paucity of literature examining the effects of...
The effects of non-surgical interventions on osteoarthritis-like changes in the mouse knee
Contributor(s): Wendy K. Anemaet, Anna Plaas (adviser), William Haley (adviser)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating condition affecting over 21 million persons in the United States. This number is expected to rise in the coming decades. Treatment approaches for OA focus on symptom modifying measures (i.e., pain relief) as disease modifying interventions do not currently...
Predictive measures of fetal distress in calves during delivery
Contributor(s): Kristin Elizabeth Hard, Howard Tyler (adviser)
The effect of birth stress on tongue color, length, and responsiveness was studied in fifty eight calves. The calves were monitored from stage 2 of parturition until birth. Tongue parameters (Tongue color, length, and responsiveness) were measured at two minute intervals. Immediately after birth...
Exploring sources of selection on the multimodal courtship displays of two sister species of wolf spiders: schizocosa crassipalpata and schizocosa bilineata
Contributor(s): Mitchel D. Bern, Eileen A. Hebets (adviser)
We examined multiple sources of selection on the multimodal courtship display of two sister species of wolf spiders, Schizocosa crassipalpata and Schizocosa bilineata. We first experimentally altered body condition in these two species by employing divergent diet treatments. We then tested for...
Sex, contamination and movement in an invasive fish
Animal movement has had a long history of study in the fields of behavioural ecology and toxicology, but rarely is the ecological context of behaviour in toxicology directly addressed. To explore how movement might be influenced by both sex differences and habitat contamination, I conducted...
Abundance of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) in the big bend of Florida, St. Vincent Sound to Alligator Harbor
Contributor(s): Reny Blue Tyson
Mark-recapture surveys implementing photographic identification techniques were used to estimate the abundance of bottlenose dolphins in an area of the Big Bend of Florida, stretching from St. Vincent Sound to Alligator Harbor, in the summer of 2007 and winter of 2008. The current population size...
Quantitative genetic analysis of reproduction traits in ball pythons
Contributor(s): Benson H. Morrill, Lee F. Rickords (adviser)
Although the captive reproduction of non-avian reptiles has increased steadily since the 1970’s, a dearth of information exists on successful management practices for large captive populations of these species. The data reported here come from a captive population of ball pythons (Python regius)...
Osteoclast ontogeny-experimental studies in two osteopetrotic mutations in the rat: A Dissertation
Contributor(s): Matthew Joseph Cielinski
Osteopetrosis is a metabolic bone disease in mammals characterized by a generalized skeletal sclerosis caused by reduced bone resorption. This reduced bone resorption is manifested in afflicted animals by abnormal bone shape, reduced or absent marrow cavities, extramedullary hemopoiesis, abnormal...
Home range, habitat use, and food habits of the black bear in southcentral Florida
Contributor(s): Wade Allen Ulrey
I studied a small, enigmatic, and imperiled black bear population in south-central Florida from 2004 - 2006. Annual home ranges of males (96.0 km2) were larger than those of females (32.2 km2). Female home ranges were smaller in winter than in summer or fall. At the landscape scale, bears...
Reduction in mucosal barrier markers with soy protein diet but not Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in DSS-treated mice
Contributor(s): Huanyi Jiang, Ruth S. MacDonald (adviser)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common ailment affecting people of all ages. Even though the pathogenesis of IBD has not been fully elucidated, there is evidence that it involves interactions between genetic susceptibility, aberrant activation of the immune system, and the environment....
Endocrine correlates of social and reproductive behaviours in a group-living Australian Passerine, the White-Browed Babbler
Contributor(s): Suzanne Oppenheimer
To investigate the evolutionary rationale for the seemingly altruistic behaviours commonly seen in cooperatively breeding Australian passerines, I examined alloparental behaviour in the White-browed Babbler Pomatostomus superciliosus (WBBA). Toward this end, I analysed behavioural, hormonal, and...
Development of frequency modulated vocalizations in big brown bat pups
Contributor(s): Heather W. Mayberry, Dr. Paul A. Faure (adviser)
Developing bat pups produce distinct vocalizations called isolation calls (I‐calls) that serve to attract the bat's mother. Mothers use spatial memory, auditory and olfactory cues to reunite with their offspring. Because I‐calls are unique to individual pups, vocalizations are crucial for the...
Behavioral ecology of savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) with respect to insectivory at Fongoli, Senegal
Contributor(s): Stephanie Lynn Bogart, Jill D. Pruetz (adviser)
In this dissertation I examine the behavioral ecology of savanna chimpanzees in Senegal. I test hypotheses related to the effects of the environment on the diet of the chimpanzees at Fongoli, concentrating on their insectivory specifically. Fongoli is the hottest and driest site in which...
Developing an online horseless horse learning lesson: an action research study
Contributor(s): Jessica M. Bauman, Kathleen Lodl (adviser)
In today’s society it is becoming ever so important to find creative and influential outlets to keep young people occupied in positive ways. High quality youth programs are shown to make a positive difference in the lives of many young people; therefore, it is important to continue the use of...
Improving beef cattle performance on tall fescue
Contributor(s): Brian Thomas Campbell
The overall goal of the studies described in this dissertation was to improve beef production of cows grazing endophyte infected tall fescue either through management practices or through identifying markers for genetic selection. Experiment 1 investigated differences in spring and fall calving...
A candidate gene association study of cryptorchidism and scrotal hernia using canine and porcine models
Contributor(s): Xia Zhao, Max Rothschild (adviser)
Cryptorchidism and scrotal hernia, both being sex-limited complex defects, are the most common congenital defects observed in humans, dogs and pigs. It is believed that these two defects are controlled by multiple genes as well as affected by environmental factors. In this thesis, 22 or 14...
From pasture to plate: A study of the rituals, ecology and economics of sheep in the context of Aid Al Adha in Morocco
Contributor(s): Carrisa Sue Pritchard, Mokhtar Harras (adviser)
This project addresses the ecological and economic roles that sheep play in Morocco in the context of Aid Al Adha celebration. It specifically examines the methods of sacrificing, butchering and preparing the different parts of the ram as part of the holiday as experienced by the researcher in a...
Habitat associations of the long-nosed potoroo (potoroos tridactylus) at multiple spatial scales
Contributor(s): Melinda A. Norton
The long-nosed potoroo (Potorous tridactylus) is a threatened, ground-dwelling marsupial known to have been highly disadvantaged by changes brought about since European settlement in Australia. Key threats to the species are believed to be fox predation and habitat loss and/or fragmentation. In...
Phylogeny, convergence, and snake behavior
Contributor(s): Harry Walter Greene
Comparative studies of snake behavior were used to confront three related conceptual issues in ethology: (i) Can behavior evolve? (ii) If so, how can the origins of similarities and differences in behavior among animals be assessed? (iii) What is the significance of this information for...