Of mice, models, and men : a critical evaluation of animal research
Contributor(s):: Rowan, Andrew N.
Pain and distress management in animal testing and research: the Humane Society of the United States Pain and Distress initiative
Contributor(s):: Stephens, M. S., Dolins, F, Donley, L., Navarro, A. M., Conlee, K. M., Rowan, A. N.
The three Rs at the beginning of the 21st Century. Proceedings of the fourth world congress on alternatives and animal use in the life sciences, New Orleans, LA, USA, 11-15 August 2002
Contributor(s):: Balls, M., Firmani, D., Rowan, A. N.
The three Rs at the beginning of the 21st century. Proceedings of the fourth world congress on alternatives and animal use in the life sciences, New Orleans, LA, USA, 11-15 August 2002
The three Rs: the way forward. The report and recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 11
Contributor(s):: Balls, M., Goldberg, A. M., Fentem, J. H., Broadhead, C. L., Burch, R. L., Festing, M. F. W., Frazier, J. M., Hendriksen, C. F. M., Jennings, M., Kamp, M. D. O. van der, Morton, D. P., Rowan, A. N., Russell, C., Russell, W. M. S., Spielmann, H., Stephens, M. L., Stokes, W. S., Straughan, D. W., Yager, J. D., Zurlo, J., Zutphen, B. F. M. van
The Use of alternatives in drug research
Contributor(s):: Rowan, Andrew N., Stratmann, Carl J.
Death is a welfare issue
Contributor(s):: Yeates, J. W.
It is commonly asserted that "death is not a welfare issue" and this has been reflected in welfare legislation and policy in many countries. However, this creates a conflict for many who consider animal welfare to be an appropriate basis for decision-making in animal ethics but also consider that...
Embarking on the second green revolution for sustainable agriculture in India: a judicious mix of traditional wisdom and modern knowledge in ecological farming
Contributor(s):: Sinha, R. K.
The Green Revolution in India which was heralded in the 1960s was a mixed blessing. Ambitious use of agrochemicals boosted food production but also destroyed the agricultural ecosystem. Of late, Indian farmers and agricultural scientists have realized this and are anxious to find alternatives...
Future tasks for agriculture
Contributor(s):: Rist, M.
The paper argues that efforts should be made to transform current trends in civilization into cultural development and that with respect to agriculture, the present technical age with open linear production methods should be transformed into a future biological one with closed cycles. A...
Meat and morality: alternatives to factory farming
Contributor(s):: Pluhar, E. B.
Scientists have shown that the practice of factory farming is an increasingly urgent danger to human health, the environment, and nonhuman animal welfare. For all these reasons, moral agents must consider alternatives. Vegetarian food production, humane food animal farming, and in-vitro meat...
Technology and ethics in agriculture
Contributor(s):: Daniel, P.
Using technological changes in wheat harvest, the formation and transformation of the cotton culture, the impact of the Green Revolution in Malaya, and genetic engineering as examples, this article explores the positive and negative impacts of science and technology applied to agriculture. The...
The ethical limits of domestication: a critique of Henry Heffner's arguments
Contributor(s):: Allen, C., Bekoff, M., Gruen, L.
Henry E. Heffner argues that "animals bred for research are properly viewed as animals who have successfully invaded the laboratory niche, relying heavily on kin selection to perpetuate their genes." (1999, p. 134). This view of human-animal interactions is the cornerstone of his...
A review of mulesing and other methods to control flystrike (cutaneous myiasis) in sheep
Contributor(s):: Phillips, C. J. C.
Flystrike (cutaneous myiasis) in sheep has the potential to have a major impact on the welfare of significant numbers of sheep worldwide, but particularly in Australia. The main control method used in Australia, the mulesing operation to remove folds of skin from the hindquarters of the sheep, is...
Effective searching of the scientific literature for alternatives: search grids for appropriate databases
Contributor(s):: Hart, L. A., Wood, M. W., Weng, H. Y.
Researchers searching for alternatives to painful procedures that involve animals may find that the dispersed relevant literature and the array of databases make the search challenging and even onerous. This paper addresses a significant gap that exists for researchers, in identifying appropriate...
Ethics and welfare of animals used in education: an overview
Contributor(s):: King, L. A.
Ethical, regulatory and scientific issues arise from the use of animals in education, from secondary level schooling through to veterinary and medical training. A utilitarian cost-benefit analysis can be used to assess whether animals should be used in scientific education. The 'benefit' aspect...
Reducing the number of animals used in behavioural genetic experiments using chromosome substitution strains
Contributor(s):: Laarakker, M. C., Ohl, F., Lith, H. A. van
Chromosome substitution strains (also called consomic lines or strains) are strains in which a single, full-length chromosome from one inbred strain - the donor strain - has been transferred onto the genetic background of a second inbred strain - the host strain. Based on the results obtained...
The application of Russell and Burch's Three Rs in commercial livestock experimentation
Contributor(s):: Colditz, I. G.
The inclusion of Russell and Burch's Three Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) in guidelines, codes of practice and law reflects their current position as the guiding principles of ethical assessment of research involving animals. This article explores some activities within the...
The educative role of an animal care committee in Canada: a case study
Contributor(s):: Bowd, A. D.
The ethics of the Three Rs principle: a reconsideration
Contributor(s):: Vorstenbosch, J. M. G.
In the past decades the Three Rs concept, famously launched by Russell and Burch in their 1959 book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, has gained a prominent place in the landscape of societal and ethical concern about animal use. Important scientific and institutional initiatives...
The interplay between replacement, reduction and refinement: considerations where the Three Rs interact
Contributor(s):: Boo, M. J. de, Rennie, A. E., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Hendriksen, C. F. M.
Russell and Burch's Three Rs principle of replacement, reduction and refinement offers a useful concept for the scientific and ethical evaluation of the use of animals in scientific procedures. Replacement, reduction and refinement are often considered separately, but when applied, one of the...