Behaviour of badgers ( Meles meles ) in farm buildings: opportunities for the transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to cattle?
Contributor(s):: Tolhurst, B. A., Delahay, R. J., Walker, N. J., Ward, A. I., Roper, T. J.
Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) are implicated in the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) to cattle. Here we investigate potential spatio-temporal foci of opportunities for contact between badgers and cattle in farm buildings. We discuss the relative occurrence of different...
Further evaluation of the developmental asynchrony hypothesis of sex ratio variation
Contributor(s):: Krackow, S.
A discussion of differences in the speed of development of male and female blastocysts up to the stage of uterine implantation compared with the developmental stage of the uterus may cause sex ratio biases in response to environmental, physiological and psychological cues. It may also cause sub...
Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses
Contributor(s):: Ransom, J. I., Cade, B. S., Hobbs, N. T.
Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated...
Maternal behaviour in Mus musculus sp.: an ethological review
Contributor(s):: Weber, E. M., Olsson, I. A. S.
In this paper, we review the scientific literature on maternal behaviour in commensal house mice and laboratory mice. Similar to other altricial species, female mice prepare a nest before parturition. Once the pups are born, nursing is the main part of maternal behaviour, and pups are weaned...
Short-term and long-term movement patterns in confined environments by domestic fowl: influence of group size and enclosure size
Contributor(s):: Mallapur, A., Miller, C., Christman, M. C., Estevez, I.
The study of animal movement and space use plays an integral role in understanding the behaviour and habitat selection of free-ranging and captive animal populations. This investigation could lead to changes in facility design to better suit the biological needs of captive animals. The aim of...
Vigilance, time budgets and predation risk in reintroduced captive-bred grey partridges Perdix perdix
Contributor(s):: Rantanen, E. M., Buner, F., Riordan, P., Sotherton, N., Macdonald, D. W.
Anti-predator behaviour has direct fitness consequences for prey species and thereby affects their reintroduction success, which has generally been poor. Development of anti-predator behaviour may be impaired in captive conditions which favour low emotional reactivity, resulting in poor...
A longitudinal study of antipredator behaviour in four successive generations of two populations of captive red junglefowl
Contributor(s):: Hakansson, J., Jensen, P.
Conservation breeding and reintroduction into the wild can only be an effective management tool if behaviours essential for a life in the wild are maintained in captivity. The aim of this study was to investigate how a protected captive environment influences antipredator behaviour over...
Artificial illumination reduces bait-take by small rainforest mammals
Contributor(s):: Bengsen, A. J., Leung, L. K. P., Lapidge, S. J., Gordon, I. J.
Small mammals often moderate their foraging behaviour in response to cues indicating a high local predation risk. We assessed the ability of cues associated with a high predation risk to reduce the consumption of bait by non-target small mammal species in a tropical rainforest, without inhibiting...
Bold, shy, and persistent: variable coyote response to light and sound stimuli
Contributor(s):: Darrow, P. A., Shivik, J. A.
To improve frightening device technology for managing predation, we examined variation in coyote (Canis latrans) response to visual, auditory, and combined stimuli using a behavior-contingent programmable frightening device. We hoped to gather information on the relative effectiveness of light,...
Can we use starlings' aversion to eyespots as the basis for a novel 'cognitive bias' task? (Special Issue: Animal suffering and welfare.)
Contributor(s):: Brilot, B. O., Normandale, C. L., Parkin, A., Bateson, M.
Experiments in humans have shown that changes in emotional (affective) state cause adaptive changes in the processing of incoming information, termed "cognitive bias". For instance, the states of anxiety and depression have been shown to be associated with "pessimistic" judgements of ambiguous...
Effects of social learning on foraging behaviour and live weight gain in first-season grazing calves
Contributor(s):: Hessle, A. K.
When livestock are turned out to semi-natural grasslands, an effective onset of grazing is important both for animal productivity and for defoliation of the sward, which preserve the biodiversity of the vegetation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether foraging behaviour of naive...
Possible factors influencing vertebrate sex ratios: an introductory overview
Contributor(s):: Hardy, I. C. W.
This review considers factors that may influence sex ratio in mammals and birds: firstly, Fisher's theory of equal investment and subsequent theories (i.e. the adaptive value of the control of offspring sex ratio to parents); and secondly, sex determination mechanisms and constraints to sex...
The significance of theories in behavioural ecology for solving problems in applied ethology - possibilities and limitations
Contributor(s):: Andersen, I. L., Naevdal, E., Boe, K. E., Bakken, M.
The aim of this paper is to provide a discussion about the significance of using a theoretical framework from behavioural ecology in solving problems in applied ethology. The theoretical approach in behavioural ecology involves costs and benefits of behavioural decisions made by an individual of...
Wild animals in our backyard. A contextual approach to the intrinsic value of animals. (Special issue: Concepts of animal welfare)
Contributor(s):: Swart, J. A. A., Keulartz, J.
As a reflection on recent debates on the value of wild animals we examine the question of the intrinsic value of wild animals in both natural and man-made surroundings. We examine the concepts being wild and domesticated. In our approach we consider animals as dependent on their environment,...
Dog attack involving predation on humans
Contributor(s):: Borchelt, P. L., Lockwood, R., Beck, A. M., Voith, V. L.
Looking, talking and blood pressure: the physiological consequences of interactions with the living environment
Contributor(s):: Katcher, A. H., Friedmann, E., Beck, A. M., Voith, V. L.
The ecology of unwanted and uncontrolled pets
Contributor(s):: Beck, A. M.
The law and the pet: a reasonable compromise Dogs, behavior, USA
Four types of activities that affect animals: implications for animal welfare science and animal ethics philosophy
Contributor(s):: Fraser, D., MacRae, A. M.
People affect animals through four broad types of activity: (1) people keep companion, farm, laboratory and captive wild animals, often while using them for some purpose; (2) people cause deliberate harm to animals through activities such as slaughter, pest control, hunting, and toxicology...
Rangifer and man: an ancient relationship
Contributor(s):: Gordon, B.
A long-term relationship between Rangifer and humans is documented in three case studies: the Canadian Barrenlands (8000 years ago to Historic period), Ice-Age France (11 000-19 000 years ago) and Mesolithic Russia (7000-10 000 years ago). Ancient human and herd migration occurred in all areas,...