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  1. A Comparison of Walking Rates Between Wild and Zoo African Elephants

    Contributor(s):: Miller, Lance J., Chase, Michael J., Hacker, Charlotte E.

    With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and...

  2. New directions for zoo animal welfare science

    Contributor(s):: Whitham, Jessica C., Wielebnowski, Nadja

    In recent years, zoos and aquaria have intensified efforts to develop approaches and tools for assessing the welfare of populations and individual animals in their care. Advances made by welfare scientists conducting studies on exotic, farm, laboratory, and companion animals have led to the...

  3. Impact of inhalation anaesthesia, surgery and analgesic treatment on home cage behaviour in laboratory mice

    Contributor(s):: Cesarovic, Nikola, Arras, Margarete, Jirkof, Paulin

    Anaesthesia and analgesia are used frequently in laboratory routine to ensure animal welfare and good scientific outcomes in experiments that may elicit pain or require immobilisation of the animal. However, there is concern regarding the effect of these procedures on animal behaviour in...

  4. Fatal Tuberculosis in a Free-Ranging African Elephant and One Health Implications of Human Pathogens in Wildlife

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Michele A. Miller, Peter Buss, Eduard O. Roos, Guy Hausler, Anzaan Dippenaar, Emily Mitchell, Louis van Schalkwyk, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, W. Ray Waters, Alina Sikar-Gang, Konstantin P. Lyashchenko, Sven D. C. Parsons, Robin Warren, Paul van Helden

    Tuberculosis (TB) in humans is a global public health concern and the discovery of animal cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and disease, especially in multi-host settings, also has significant implications for public health, veterinary disease control, and conservation...

  5. Diversity of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia/Neoehrlichia Agents in Terrestrial Wild Carnivores Worldwide: Implications for Human and Domestic Animal Health and Wildlife Conservation

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Marcos Rogério André

    Recently, the incidence and awareness of tick-borne diseases in humans and animals have increased due to several factors, which in association favor the chances of contact among wild animals and their ectoparasites, domestic animals and humans. Wild and domestic carnivores are considered the...

  6. Evaluating the Efficacy of Knowledge-Transfer Interventions on Animal Health Knowledge of Rural Working Equid Owners in Central Ethiopia: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Andrew P. Stringer, Rob M. Christley, Catriona E. Bell, Feseha Gebreab, Gebre Tefera, Karen Reed, Andrew Trawford, Gina L. Pinchbeck

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of several knowledge-transfer interventions about donkey health, utilizing a cluster-randomized controlled trial (c-RCT), on the long-term knowledge change (∼6 months post intervention) of Ethiopian rural working equid owners....

  7. Review of principles governing dog health education in remote Aboriginal communities

    | Contributor(s):: Willis, E. M., Ross, K. E.

  8. A comparison of inferential analysis methods for multilevel studies: Implications for drawing conclusions in animal welfare science

    | Contributor(s):: Stevens, Kara N., Asher, Lucy, Griffin, Kym, Friel, Mary, O'Connell, Niamh, Collins, Lisa M.

    Investigations comparing the behaviour and welfare of animals in different environments have led to mixed and often conflicting results. These could arise from genuine differences in welfare, poor validity of indicators, low statistical power, publication bias, or inappropriate statistical...

  9. Does positive reinforcement training affect the behaviour and welfare of zoo animals? The case of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta)

    | Contributor(s):: Spiezio, Caterina, Vaglio, Stefano, Scala, Consuelo, Regaiolli, Barbara

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) is an established tool to facilitate animal husbandry, care and research in modern zoos, with potential positive implications for captive animal welfare. The study explored the role of an isolation PRT training programme on the well-being of ring-tailed...

  10. Zoonosis : prospects and challenges for medical anthropology

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Frédéric Keck, Christos Lynteris

    In recent years anthropologists have shown an increasing interest in ‘zoonoses’: diseases naturally transmitted from nonhuman animals to humans, such as anthrax, brucellosis, influenza, hantavirus syndromes, Middle East respiratory syndrome, plague, and rabies. Animal-derived...

  11. Human, animal and environmental contributors to antibiotic resistance in low resource settings: integrating behavioural, epidemiological and One Health approaches

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Emily K Rousham, Leanne Unicomb, Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is recognised as a One Health challenge because of the rapid emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria and genes among humans, animals and the environment on a global scale. However, there is a paucity of research assessing ABR contemporaneously in humans,...

  12. Preventing zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons: the role of physicians and veterinarians.

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Sara Grant, Christopher W. Olsen

  13. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for 'One Health' in Africa

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Kathryn J. Allan, Holly M. Biggs, Jo E.B. Halliday, Rudovick R. Kazwala, Venance P. Maro, Sarah Cleaveland, John A. Crump

    Background Leptospirosis is an important but neglected bacterial zoonosis that has been largely overlooked in Africa. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarise and compare current knowledge of: (1) the geographic distribution, prevalence, incidence and diversity of acute human...

  14. Surveillance for respiratory and diarrheal pathogens at the human-pig interface in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Laura K. Borkenhagen, Kerry A. Mallinson, Rick W. Tsao, Siaw-Jing Ha, Wei-Honn Lim, Teck-Hock Toh, Benjamin D. Anderson, Jane K. Fieldhouse, Sarah E. Philo, Kuek-Sen Chong, William G. Lindsley, Alejandro Ramirez, James F. Lowe, Kristen K. Coleman, Gregory C. Gray

    Background The large livestock operations and dense human population of Southeast Asia are considered a hot-spot for emerging viruses. Objectives To determine if the pathogens adenovirus (ADV), coronavirus (CoV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), enterovirus (EV), influenza A-D (IAV, IBV, ICV,...

  15. A Mini Review of the Zoonotic Threat Potential of Influenza Viruses, Coronaviruses, Adenoviruses, and Enteroviruses

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Emily S Bailey, Jane K Fieldhouse, Jessica Y Choi, Gregory C Gray

    During the last two decades, scientists have grown increasingly aware that viruses are emerging from the human–animal interface. In particular, respiratory infections are problematic; in early 2003, World Health Organization issued a worldwide alert for a previously unrecognized illness...

  16. The continual threat of influenza virus infections at the human–animal interface: What is new from a one health perspective?

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Emily S Bailey, Jessica Y Choi, Jane K Fieldhouse, Laura Borkenhagen, Juliana Zemke, Dingmei Zhang, Gregory C Gray

    This year, in 2018, we mark 100 years since the 1918 influenza pandemic. In the last 100 years, we have expanded our knowledge of public health and increased our ability to detect and prevent influenza; however, we still face challenges resulting from these continually evolving viruses. Today,...

  17. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: K.A. Bond, G. Vincent, C.R. Wilks, L. Franklin, B. Sutton, J. Stenos, R. Cowan, K. Lim, E. Athan, O. Harris, L. Macfarlane-Berry, Y. Segal, S.M. Firestone

    A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management...

  18. Sentinel Animals in a One Health Approach to Harmful Cyanobacterial and Algal Blooms

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Lorraine C. Backer, Melissa Miller

    People, domestic animals, and wildlife are all exposed to numerous environmental threats, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). However, because animals exhibit wide variations in diet, land use and biology, they are often more frequently or heavily exposed to HAB toxins than are people...

  19. Multisectoral prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Uganda, 2017: A One Health perspective

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Musa Sekamatte, Vikram Krishnasamy, Lilian Bulage, Christine Kihembo, Noelina Nantima, Fred Monje, Deo Ndumu, Juliet Sentumbwe, Betty Mbolanyi, Robert Aruho, Winyi Kaboyo, David Mutonga, Colin Basler, Sarah Paige, Casey Barton Behravesh

    Background Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic...

  20. Prioritizing Zoonoses for Global Health Capacity Building—Themes from One Health Zoonotic Disease Workshops in 7 Countries, 2014–2016

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Stephanie J Salyer, Rachel Silver, Kerri Simone, Casey Barton Behravesh

    Zoonotic diseases represent critical threats to global health security. Effective mitigation of the impact of endemic and emerging zoonotic diseases of public health importance requires multisectoral collaboration and interdisciplinary partnerships. The US Centers for Disease Control and...