The effect of increasing dietary fibre on feeding, rumination and oral stereotypies in captive giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis )
Contributor(s):: Baxter, E., Plowman, A. B.
Many captive giraffes perform oral stereotypes, in particular tongue-playing, licking of objects (including conspecifics) and vacuum chewing. Typically, the diet of these large ruminants in captivity consists mostly of food concentrates, which are consumed rapidly and do not provide stimulation...
The effect of management system on mortality and other welfare indicators in Pennsylvania dairy herds
Contributor(s):: Dechow, C. D., Smith, E. A., Goodling, R. C.
The objective of this study was to identify farm characteristics that were associated with cow (Bos taurus) welfare outcomes, including mortality rate, culling by 60 days of lactation, survival to >=6 years of age and >=5th parity (aged cows), somatic cell score, milk yield, and milk composition....
The effect of the kennel environment on canine welfare: a critical review of experimental studies
Contributor(s):: Taylor, K. D., Mills, D. S.
Dogs can be held temporarily or permanently in kennels for a number of reasons, not necessarily for their own benefit. Although restrictive environments have been associated with poor welfare, priorities for research and change cannot be understood unless the various aspects of the kennel...
The effects of 24 h water deprivation when associated with some aspects of transportation on the behaviour and blood chemistry of sheep
Contributor(s):: Jackson, R. E., Cockram, M. S., Goddard, P. J., Doherty, O. M., McGilp, I. M., Waran, N. K.
In a 2x2 factorial experiment, groups of 6 sheep were moved from individual pens where they had access to hay and water to environmental chambers kept at either 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. Within each chamber, half the sheep had access to water but they were all kept at a space allowance of...
The effects of different types of feeding enhancements on the behaviour of single-caged, yearling rhesus macaques
Contributor(s):: Schapiro, S. J., Suarez, S. A., Porter, L. M., Bloomsmith, M. A.
Captive primates rarely spend as much time searching for, obtaining and processing feed as do their wild counterparts. Enrichment techniques designed to encourage captive primates to spend more species-appropriate amounts of time in foraging behaviour have been successful. Behavioural effects of...
The husbandry, welfare and health of captive African civets ( Vivera civetica ) in western Ethiopa
Contributor(s):: Tolosa, T., Regassa, F.
A study was carried out during the period from September 2001 to August 2002 in Jimma zone, western Ethiopia to evaluate the husbandry and health of captive African civets (Vivera civetica). Wild civets were found in the wild in all 13 of the districts in the zone, although traditional...
The impact of genetic selection for increased milk yield on the welfare of dairy cows
Contributor(s):: Oltenacu, P. A., Broom, D. M.
Milk yield per cow has more than doubled in the previous 40 years and many cows now produce more than 20,000 kg of milk per lactation. The increase in production should be viewed with concern because: (i) the increase in milk yield has been accompanied by declining fertility, increasing leg and...
The welfare of finishing pigs under different housing and feeding systems: liquid versus dry feeding in fully-slatted and straw-based housing
Contributor(s):: Scott, K., Chennells, D. J., Armstrong, D., Taylor, L., Gill, B. P., Edwards, S. A.
This study assessed the health and welfare implications of feeding pigs a dry or liquid diet when housed in either fully-slatted or straw-based accommodation. Between April and October 2002, 1024 (Large White x Landrace) x Large White pigs, housed in pens of 32, were fed ad libitum from 34 kg to...
Validation of an Animal Needs Index for cattle using Test Theory
Contributor(s):: Herva, T., Peltoniemi, O., Virtala, A. M.
The validity of an ANI-based welfare index for cattle, the A-Index, was evaluated using Test Theory methods described for quality of life assessments in human medicine. Content validity was considered during the modification of the Index for Finnish beef production. In total, 43 items evaluating...
Vitamin A metabolism in recessive white canaries
Contributor(s):: Wolf, P., Bartels, T., Sallmann, H. P., Heisler, K., Kamphues, J.
In recent years, a possible defect in vitamin A metabolism in recessive white canaries (Serinus canaria) has been repeatedly discussed. It has widely been accepted that a reduced absorption of carotenoids from the small intestine results in an insufficient synthesis of vitamin A. Moreover, the...
Welfare assessment in 82 pig farms: effect of animal age and floor type on behaviour and injuries in fattening pigs
Contributor(s):: Courboulay, V., Eugene, A., Delarue, E.
A welfare assessment method was built, based on criteria related to behaviour, lesion scores and human/animal interactions, and tested thereafter in two main types of farms differing by their type of floor: either concrete, fully or partially slatted (C; n=42) or straw bedding (S; n=40)....
Welfare implications of nipple drinkers for broiler chickens
Contributor(s):: Houldcroft, E., Smith, C., Mrowicki, R., Headland, L., Grieveson, S., Jones, T. A., Dawkins, M. S.
Commercially reared broiler chickens are commonly supplied with drinking water through lines of nipple drinkers that are positioned above the birds' heads to avoid water leaking and spoiling the litter underfoot. This means that the birds have to peck upwards to obtain water, an action that is...
Do pets influence the quantity and choice of food offered to them by their owners: lessons from other animals and the pre-verbal human infant?
Contributor(s):: Day, J. E. L., Kergoat, S., Kotrschal, K.
All social animals influence each other's behaviour. One area of particular interest is the social interaction that occurs between pets and their owners. Within pet-owner dyads, food and feeding are always part of the dyadic ritual. In this review, we hypothesize that feeding can be considered to...
Integrating practical, regulatory and ethical strategies for enhancing farm animal welfare
Contributor(s):: Mellor, D. J., Stafford, K. J.
The study was conducted to provide an integrated view of relationships between assessment of animal welfare, societal expectations regarding animal welfare standards, the need for regulation, and two ethical strategies for promoting animal welfare, emphasizing farm animals. Ideas in relevant...
Non-human primate behavior
Contributor(s):: Calle, P. P.
The importance of rearing management at a young age and artificial weaning on the establishment of the human-animal relationship in beef cattle and goats
Contributor(s):: Boivin, X., Garel, J. P., Neindre, P. le
Behaviour of cats
Contributor(s):: Bradshaw, J.
The origin, history and effects of domestication, behaviour and relationship with humans of cats are described.