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Korsgaard and Non-Sentient Life
Contributor(s):: Bock, Gregory L.
The Ethical Disconnect of the Circus: Humanity's acceptance of Performing Elephants
Contributor(s):: Jaynes, Mike
Survival of bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops sp.) calves at a wild dolphin provisioning program, Tangalooma, Australia
Contributor(s):: Neil, D. T., Holmes, B. J.
Mortality of calves born to provisioned mothers is identified in the literature as an issue of concern in dolphin provisioning programs. Wild dolphin provisioning at Tangalooma, Moreton Island, Australia has been occurring since 1992. Each evening, up to eight dolphins are provided with fish in a...
A case study of orangutan and siamang behavior within a mixed-species zoo exhibit
Contributor(s):: Pearson, E. L., Davis, J. M., Litchfield, C. A.
This empirical case study assessed the behavior and welfare of 2 orangutans (Pongo abelii) and 2 siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) within a mixed-species zoo exhibit. The study used instantaneous scan-sampling to record behavior, location, and interspecies proximity over 174 hr and...
A case study: fecal corticosteroid and behavior as indicators of welfare during relocation of an Asian elephant
Contributor(s):: Laws, N., Ganswindt, A., Heistermann, M., Harris, M., Harris, S., Sherwin, C.
This study was a preliminary investigation of an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in a male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) by investigating changes in behavior and cortisol metabolite excretion associated with a putative stressful event. The study collected...
A case study: the effect of visitors on two captive pumas with respect to the time of the day
Contributor(s):: Maia, C. M., Volpato, G. L., Santos, E. F.
This study analyzed the effects of noise levels and number of visitors on the behaviors of a mother puma and her daughter in a zoo environment with respect to the time of day. The study monitored visitation (noise and number) over two 1-week periods (4 weeks between periods) and frequency of...
A close keeper-nonhuman animal distance does not reduce undesirable behavior in contact yard goats and sheep
Contributor(s):: Anderson, U. S., Maple, T. L., Bloomsmith, M. A.
This study investigated the relation between zookeeper-nonhuman animal distance and the undesirable behaviour that goats and sheep exhibited toward visitors of Zoo Atlanta's (Georgia, USA) contact yard. It hypothesized that a close distance between keeper and animal would be associated with a...
A combination of behavioral and physiological indicators for assessing pig welfare on the farm
Contributor(s):: Candiani, D., Salamano, G., Mellia, E., Doglione, L., Bruno, R., Toussaint, M., Gruys, E.
The purpose of this research was to identify pig welfare indicators that could help in recognizing stressful practices on farm. The study evaluated behavioral and physiological indicators (cortisol and negative acute phase proteins) in 2 groups of 20 female pigs 4 months old after a 48-hr...
A comparison of tethering and pen confinement of dogs
Contributor(s):: Yeon, S. C., Golden, G., Sung, W., Erb, H. N., Reynolds, A. J., Houpt, K. A.
This study compared the general activity and specific behaviours of 30 adult Alaskan sled dogs (19 males and 11 females) on 3.5-m tethers and in 5.9-m2 pens. The investigators used activity level and stereotypical behaviour as indicators of welfare. The dogs spent most of their time inactive,...
A note on the effect of controlling stable flies ( Stomxys calcitrans ) in the resting activity and pen distribution of dairy cows
Contributor(s):: Vitela, I., Cruz-Vazquez, C., Orihuela, A.
This study investigated the effect of controlling stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) on the number of dairy cows lying down and their pen distribution. The study randomly assigned 80 Holstein cows to 1 of 2 groups. The treated group (T) included cows individually sprayed with insecticide when...
A tail of two monkeys: social housing for nonhuman primates in the research laboratory setting
Contributor(s):: Seelig, D.
Despite great adaptability, most nonhuman primates require regular tactile contact with conspecifics for their psychological well being. By illustrating the inherent value of social contact and by providing clues to the best ways of satisfying this need, behavioral studies are useful in designing...
Admissions of cats to animal welfare shelters in Melbourne, Australia
Contributor(s):: Marston, L. C., Bennett, P. C.
Although the number of companion animal (pet) cats (Felis catus) in Australia is decreasing, there has not been a corresponding reduction in feline admissions to nonhuman animal welfare shelters. This study tracked 15,206 cat admissions to 1 large Melbourne shelter over a 12-month period. Data...
Aggression and welfare in a common aquarium fish, the Midas cichlid
Contributor(s):: Oldfield, R. G.
Many species of fishes are aggressive when placed in small aquaria. Aggression can negatively affect the welfare of those individuals toward whom it is directed. Animals may behave aggressively in order to defend resources such as food, shelter, mates, and offspring. The decision to defend...
Aggressive behavior in two different group-housing systems for pregnant sows
Contributor(s):: Chapinal, N., Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J. L., Cerisuelo, A., Gasa, J., Baucells, M. D., Manteca, X.
The study housed 120 pregnant sows from Day 29 of pregnancy to 1 week before parturition either in groups of 10 with trickle feeding (TRICKLE) or in groups of 20 with an unprotected electronic sow feeding (FITMIX). The study recorded aggressive interaction on 11 nonconsecutive days. Frequency of...
An hourly variation in zoo visitor interest: measurement and significance for animal welfare research
Contributor(s):: Davey, G.
A methodological difficulty facing welfare research on nonhuman animals in the zoo is the large number of uncontrolled variables due to variation within and between study sites. Zoo visitors act as uncontrolled variables, with number, density, size, and behaviour constantly changing. This is...
Animal welfare beyond the cage ... and beyond the evidence?
Contributor(s):: Blanchard, R. J.
In "Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside the Cage," Balcombe (2010/this issue) suggests that laboratory cage housing is damaging to rats and mice because it does not meet their evolved needs and may damage their psychological and physical health. The article also indicates that larger and...
Assessing the welfare of dairy cattle. (Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium)
Contributor(s):: Rushen, J.
This article suggests that health problems represent some of the main threats to the welfare of dairy cattle. Although disagreement often arises about what constitutes the main welfare problems, there is broad agreement that welfare is reduced by health problems. In recent decades, a marked...
Behavior as a tool for welfare improvement and conservation management in the endangered lizard ( Gallotia bravoana )
Contributor(s):: Mesa-Avila, G., Molina-Borja, M.
The study assessed the behavior of Gallotia bravoana (La Gomera, Canary Islands, one of the world's most threatened reptiles) to facilitate management decisions and improve welfare during initial stages of a species' recovery plan. The study analyzed - and remote-controlled video cameras filmed -...
Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates
Contributor(s):: Avanti, Mallapur, Choudhury, B. C.
In this study, we dealt with 11 species of non-human primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behaviour as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviours for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behaviour...
Behavioral and hormonal consequences of transporting giant pandas from China to the United States
Contributor(s):: Snyder, R. J., Perdue, B. M., Powell, D. M., Forthman, D. L., Bloomsmith, M. A., Maple, T. L.
Zoological institutions strive to ensure the welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity. Part of this effort involves reducing the level of distress experienced by an animal to the greatest extent possible. However, some necessary zoo management practices such as transportation induce stress...