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All Categories (161-180 of 3169)

  1. Standing for Nonhuman Animals: Developing a Guardianship Model from the Dissents in Sierra Club v. Morton

    Contributor(s):: Hogan, Marguerite

  2. A case study employing operant conditioning to reduce stress of capture for red-bellied tamarins ( Saguinus labiatus )

    Contributor(s):: Owen, Y., Amory, J. R.

    Traditional techniques used to capture New World monkeys, such as net capture, can induce high levels of acute stress detrimental to welfare. Alternatively, training nonhuman animals via operant conditioning to voluntarily participate in husbandry and/or veterinary practices is accepted as a...

  3. A case study of orangutan and siamang behavior within a mixed-species zoo exhibit

    Contributor(s):: Pearson, E. L., Davis, J. M., Litchfield, C. A.

    This empirical case study assessed the behavior and welfare of 2 orangutans (Pongo abelii) and 2 siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) within a mixed-species zoo exhibit. The study used instantaneous scan-sampling to record behavior, location, and interspecies proximity over 174 hr and...

  4. A case study: fecal corticosteroid and behavior as indicators of welfare during relocation of an Asian elephant

    Contributor(s):: Laws, N., Ganswindt, A., Heistermann, M., Harris, M., Harris, S., Sherwin, C.

    This study was a preliminary investigation of an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in a male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) by investigating changes in behavior and cortisol metabolite excretion associated with a putative stressful event. The study collected...

  5. A case study: the effect of visitors on two captive pumas with respect to the time of the day

    Contributor(s):: Maia, C. M., Volpato, G. L., Santos, E. F.

    This study analyzed the effects of noise levels and number of visitors on the behaviors of a mother puma and her daughter in a zoo environment with respect to the time of day. The study monitored visitation (noise and number) over two 1-week periods (4 weeks between periods) and frequency of...

  6. A close keeper-nonhuman animal distance does not reduce undesirable behavior in contact yard goats and sheep

    Contributor(s):: Anderson, U. S., Maple, T. L., Bloomsmith, M. A.

    This study investigated the relation between zookeeper-nonhuman animal distance and the undesirable behaviour that goats and sheep exhibited toward visitors of Zoo Atlanta's (Georgia, USA) contact yard. It hypothesized that a close distance between keeper and animal would be associated with a...

  7. A combination of behavioral and physiological indicators for assessing pig welfare on the farm

    Contributor(s):: Candiani, D., Salamano, G., Mellia, E., Doglione, L., Bruno, R., Toussaint, M., Gruys, E.

    The purpose of this research was to identify pig welfare indicators that could help in recognizing stressful practices on farm. The study evaluated behavioral and physiological indicators (cortisol and negative acute phase proteins) in 2 groups of 20 female pigs 4 months old after a 48-hr...

  8. A comparison of attachment levels of adopters of cats: fee-based adoptions versus free adoptions

    Contributor(s):: Weiss, E., Gramann, S.

    Nonhuman animal welfare professionals have been critical of adoption programs that do not charge a fee for adult cats, despite the high euthanasia rate for cats due to a reported lack of homes. The argument against the free cat adoptions cites a devaluation of the cat, which may affect the...

  9. A comparison of Bahamian cat and dog caregivers on New Providence

    Contributor(s):: Fielding, W. J.

    This article offers the first comparison of actions and attitudes of Afro-Caribbean caregivers who keep only cats or only dogs. A total of 330 Bahamian caregivers found that women primarily keep cats; men primarily keep dogs. Cat keepers were more attached to their companion animals but no more...

  10. A comparison of tethering and pen confinement of dogs

    Contributor(s):: Yeon, S. C., Golden, G., Sung, W., Erb, H. N., Reynolds, A. J., Houpt, K. A.

    This study compared the general activity and specific behaviours of 30 adult Alaskan sled dogs (19 males and 11 females) on 3.5-m tethers and in 5.9-m2 pens. The investigators used activity level and stereotypical behaviour as indicators of welfare. The dogs spent most of their time inactive,...

  11. A critical review of electrical water-bath stun systems for poultry slaughter and recent developments in alternative technologies

    Contributor(s):: Shields, S. J., Raj, A. B. M.

    Prior to slaughter, most farmed birds move through a constant-voltage, multiple-bird, electrical water-bath stun system. Using this system subjects live birds to stressful and painful shackling, and the potential exists for them to receive prestun electric shocks and induction of seizures while...

  12. A multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at three space allowances

    Contributor(s):: Sutherland, M. A., Bryer, P. J., Davis, B. L., McGlone, J. J.

    Transport can be a stressful experience for pigs, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to use a multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at 3 space allowances. A commercial semitrailer, fitted with...

  13. A nonnatural head-neck position ( Rollkur ) during training results in less acute stress in elite, trained, dressage horses

    Contributor(s):: Breda, E. van

    This study measured parameters of stress in recreational, trained horses (REC; n=7) and elite (International Grand Prix level) trained, dressage horses (DRES; n=5). The training of the DRES horses uses an unnatural head-neck position (Rollkur), whereas in the REC horses such training techniques...

  14. A note on the effect of controlling stable flies ( Stomxys calcitrans ) in the resting activity and pen distribution of dairy cows

    Contributor(s):: Vitela, I., Cruz-Vazquez, C., Orihuela, A.

    This study investigated the effect of controlling stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) on the number of dairy cows lying down and their pen distribution. The study randomly assigned 80 Holstein cows to 1 of 2 groups. The treated group (T) included cows individually sprayed with insecticide when...

  15. A project to clone companion animals

    Contributor(s):: Hawthorne, L.

    A 'special feature' article by the Project Coordinator of MIssyplicity, a Genetic Savings & Clone (GSC) project seeking to clone a specific mixed breed dog, named Missy, owned by an anonymous yet wealthy individual.

  16. A review of behavioral assessment protocols used by Australian animal shelters to determine the adoption suitability of dogs

    Contributor(s):: Mornement, K. M., Coleman, G. J., Toukhsati, S., Bennett, P. C.

    Shelter dogs typically undergo preadoption assessment for suitability as companions. Dogs who pass are available for adoption. Available resources determine whether dogs who fail are euthanized or rehabilitated. Accurate assessment of shelter-dog behavior is imperative to protect community...

  17. A study of three IACUCs and their views of scientific merit and alternatives

    Contributor(s):: Graham, K.

    Two ethical issues facing Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) today are assessing scientific merit and the use of alternatives in research proposals. This study evaluated 3 IACUCs using a 19-question survey, with a 77.8% response rate. Although 76% of members answered that...

  18. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos

    Contributor(s):: Morabito, P., Bashaw, M. J.

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic...

  19. A survey of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ) and gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla ) in the selectively logged Ngotto Forest, Central African Republic

    Contributor(s):: Hicks, T. C., Fouts, R. S., Fouts, D. H.

    Currently, the timber company Industrie Forestiere du Batalimo is selectively logging the Ngotto Forest in the Central African Republic. The forest is home to a population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and provides the Bofi-speaking people of...

  20. A tail of two monkeys: social housing for nonhuman primates in the research laboratory setting

    Contributor(s):: Seelig, D.

    Despite great adaptability, most nonhuman primates require regular tactile contact with conspecifics for their psychological well being. By illustrating the inherent value of social contact and by providing clues to the best ways of satisfying this need, behavioral studies are useful in designing...