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Abstracts of the proccedings on "animal welfare and epidemiology - across species, across disciplines, and across borders", Ames, Iowa, USA, 14-16 July 2008
Contributor(s):: Millman, S. T., Johnson, A. K., O'Connor, A. M., Zanella, A. J.
Abstracts of the proccedings on "Animal Welfare and Epidemiology - across species, across disciplines, and across borders", Ames, Iowa, USA, 14-16 July 2008
Admissions of cats to animal welfare shelters in Melbourne, Australia
Contributor(s):: Marston, L. C., Bennett, P. C.
Although the number of companion animal (pet) cats (Felis catus) in Australia is decreasing, there has not been a corresponding reduction in feline admissions to nonhuman animal welfare shelters. This study tracked 15,206 cat admissions to 1 large Melbourne shelter over a 12-month period. Data...
Aggression and welfare in a common aquarium fish, the Midas cichlid
Contributor(s):: Oldfield, R. G.
Many species of fishes are aggressive when placed in small aquaria. Aggression can negatively affect the welfare of those individuals toward whom it is directed. Animals may behave aggressively in order to defend resources such as food, shelter, mates, and offspring. The decision to defend...
Aggressive behavior in two different group-housing systems for pregnant sows
Contributor(s):: Chapinal, N., Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J. L., Cerisuelo, A., Gasa, J., Baucells, M. D., Manteca, X.
The study housed 120 pregnant sows from Day 29 of pregnancy to 1 week before parturition either in groups of 10 with trickle feeding (TRICKLE) or in groups of 20 with an unprotected electronic sow feeding (FITMIX). The study recorded aggressive interaction on 11 nonconsecutive days. Frequency of...
An empirical case study examining effectiveness of environmental enrichment in two captive Australian Sea Lions ( Neophoca cinerea )
Contributor(s):: Smith, B. P., Litchfield, C. A.
This case study examined the effect of environmental enrichment on the activity budgets of a male and female Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) housed together at Adelaide Zoo. Using non-food-related (intrinsic) and food-related (extrinsic) enrichment objects, the study conducted an ABABA...
An evaluation of exercise pen use by circus tigers ( Pathera tigris tigris )
Contributor(s):: Nevill, C. H., Friend, T. H., Windom, A. G.
This study quantified the behavior of 11 tigers during periodic access to an exercise pen throughout the day and night. The study determined the amount of time spent in the pen and the percentage of time spent performing stereotypic pacing, normal locomotor behavior, and lying down while in the...
An hourly variation in zoo visitor interest: measurement and significance for animal welfare research
Contributor(s):: Davey, G.
A methodological difficulty facing welfare research on nonhuman animals in the zoo is the large number of uncontrolled variables due to variation within and between study sites. Zoo visitors act as uncontrolled variables, with number, density, size, and behaviour constantly changing. This is...
Animal disease and human trauma: the psychosocial implications of the 2001 UK foot and mouth disease disaster
Contributor(s):: Mort, M., Baxter, J., Bailey, C., Convery, I.
The 2001 UK foot and mouth disease (FMD) crisis is commonly understood to have been a nonhuman animal problem, an economic industrial crisis that was resolved after eradication. By using a different lens, a longitudinal ethnographic study of the health and social consequences of the epidemic, the...
Animal dissection and evidence-based life-science and health-professions education
Contributor(s):: Nobis, N.
Author's response to Balcombe's commentators [2000 & 2001 this journal] notes that Balcombe could be motivated by an evidentialist perspective growing out of the work of W. K. Clifford.
Animal experimentation in cancer research: a citation analysis
Contributor(s):: Dagg, A. I.
Cancer research involves the use of millions of nonhuman animals and billions of dollars in public funds each year, but cures for the disease remain elusive. This article suggests ways to reduce the use of animals and save money by identifying articles that garnered few citations over the 9 years...
Animal protection measures in Taiwan: Taiwanese attitudes toward the animal protection law and animal shelters
Contributor(s):: Weng, H. Y., Kass, P. H., Hart, L. A., Chomel, B. B.
This study used a questionnaire, self-administered by 387 Taiwanese citizens, to assess Taiwanese perception and knowledge of the Animal Protection Law and perception and use of animal shelters. Most respondents (87%) knew that Taiwan has legal protection for animals. A -5 to 5 summary score...
Animal welfare - scientific approaches to the issues
Contributor(s):: Millman, S. T.
Nonhuman animal welfare is of significant public interest, globally and within the United States. Value-based judgments are intrinsic to animal welfare assessment, according to the relative weighting of factors associated with animal performance, health, affective states, and natural living. The...
Animal welfare and livestock production in a postindustrial milieu. (Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium)
Contributor(s):: Thompson, P. B.
Structural transformation, food safety, and environmental risks pose challenges to livestock producers. Adjustments to livestock production systems to improve animal welfare will be made in an economic and political milieu characterized by these challenges. However, competing assumptions about...
Animal welfare beyond the cage ... and beyond the evidence?
Contributor(s):: Blanchard, R. J.
In "Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside the Cage," Balcombe (2010/this issue) suggests that laboratory cage housing is damaging to rats and mice because it does not meet their evolved needs and may damage their psychological and physical health. The article also indicates that larger and...
Animal welfare issues in the poultry industry: is there a lesson to be learned? (Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium)
Contributor(s):: Duncan, I. J. H.
Many of the conditions in which poultry live and the procedures to which they are subjected compromise their welfare. This article describes these welfare problems in the hope that they may serve as warnings to the rest of animal agriculture, which then might take steps to avoid the same...
Application of welfare assessment to commercial livestock production
Contributor(s):: Main, D. C. J.
Farm assurance schemes are an inevitable and essential part of the UK livestock industries as they provide valuable assurances to the market over food safety, nonhuman animal welfare, and environmental concerns. However, there is potential for welfare assessment within such schemes to extend...
Artificial weaning of calves: benefits and costs
Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.
Evidence indicates that allowing beef calves to stay in the maternal herd beyond the age of natural weaning promotes animal welfare and may enhance the cows' natural reproductive potential.
Artificial weaning of Old World monkeys: benefits and costs
Permanent mother-infant separation prior to natural weaning is a common husbandry practice in monkey breeding colonies. In the United States, all eight Regional Primate Research Centres have such colonies. Under undisturbed conditions, Old World monkey mothers wean their infants at the age of...
Assessing acute effects of trapping, handling, and tagging on the behavior of wildlife using GPS telemetry: a case study of the common brushtail possum
Contributor(s):: Dennis, T. E., Shah, S. F.
Trapping, handling, and deployment of tracking devices (tagging) are essential aspects of many research and conservation studies of wildlife. However, often these activities place nonhuman animals under considerable physical or psychological distress, which disrupts normal patterns of behavior...
Assessing the welfare of dairy cattle. (Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium)
Contributor(s):: Rushen, J.
This article suggests that health problems represent some of the main threats to the welfare of dairy cattle. Although disagreement often arises about what constitutes the main welfare problems, there is broad agreement that welfare is reduced by health problems. In recent decades, a marked...