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All Categories (81-100 of 3109)

  1. A note on enrichment for spontaneous tool use by chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes )

    Contributor(s):: Morimura, N.

    In the wild, decisions as to "when", "where", and "how" an animal acts are made based on the individual's own choice; in contrast, the behaviour of wild animals in captivity may be under human control. To improve the physical and psychological well-being of captive animals, we should ensure that...

  2. A note on indoor and outdoor housing preferences of common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus )

    Contributor(s):: Pines, M. K., Kaplan, G., Rogers, L. J.

    This study examined the preferences of six pairs of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) from the colony at the University of New England, Australia, between their home cage and either a large, enriched, indoor room or a smaller outdoor cage. When given free access to move between their home...

  3. A note on measurement of injection aversiveness

    Contributor(s):: Grandin, T., Maxwell, K., Lanier, J.

    The behavior of cattle during an injection of doramectin 1% injectable solution or ivermectin 1% injectable solution in an attempt to measure small differences in aversiveness in 61 red Angus-cross, 2-year-old heifers. Each animal was held in a squeeze chute and given a 9 ml s.c. injection of...

  4. A note on reward-related behaviour and emotional expressions in farmed silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) - basis for a novel tool to study animal welfare

    Contributor(s):: Moe, R. O., Bakken, M., Kittilsen, S., Kingsley-Smith, H., Spruijt, B. M.

    The present study aimed to investigate the profile and quantitative aspects of reward-related behaviour and emotional expressions during anticipation of positive (predictable or various unpredictable) or negative (predictable) rewards in a Pavlovian trace conditioning paradigm in farmed silver...

  5. A note on stereotyped behaviour in pair and group-housed farmed juvenile raccoon dogs

    Contributor(s):: Ahola, L., Hanninen, S., Mononen, J.

    Farmed fur animals are traditionally housed in cage environment that is often considered as too barren to meet the species-specific needs of these animals. Group housing has been suggested to offer an easy and feasible way to enrich the housing environment of farmed social animal species,...

  6. A note on the behaviour of the chicken that receives feather pecks

    Contributor(s):: Riber, A. B., Forkman, B.

    Basic knowledge of feather pecking on the individual level is still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate whether active and inactive individuals preferentially attract feather pecking. Female layer hen chicks were housed in six pens with each 15 chicks. Each occurrence of gentle and...

  7. A note on the effect of auditory stimulation on the behaviour and welfare of zoo-housed gorillas

    Contributor(s):: Wells, D. L., Coleman, D., Challis, M. G.

    Auditory stimulation has long been employed as a form of therapy for humans and animals housed in institutions. Its effect on one of our closest-living relatives, the gorilla, however, is largely unknown. This study explored the effect of auditory stimulation on the behaviour and welfare of six...

  8. A note on the effect of changes in flooring on the behaviour of housed rams

    Contributor(s):: McGreevy, P. D., George, S., Thomson, P. C.

    This paper reports on the use of plastic mats by rams housed in pens with wire mesh floors and the motivational consequences of short-term removal of these mats. Six rams were monitored for 5 days before and after the introduction of mats. The mats were then removed for 24 h. There was a peak in...

  9. A note on the effect of control of the thermal environment on the well-being of growing pigs

    Contributor(s):: Jones, R., Nicol, C. J.

    Thirty-six pigs, aged 28 days at the start of the experiment, were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments, and then housed in pairs. Treatment S provided standard accommodation with continuous heat from an infrared source. Treatment O allowed pigs operant control of an infrared heat source. The...

  10. A note on the effect of controlling stable flies ( Stomxys calcitrans ) in the resting activity and pen distribution of dairy cows

    Contributor(s):: Vitela, I., Cruz-Vazquez, C., Orihuela, A.

    This study investigated the effect of controlling stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) on the number of dairy cows lying down and their pen distribution. The study randomly assigned 80 Holstein cows to 1 of 2 groups. The treated group (T) included cows individually sprayed with insecticide when...

  11. A note on the effect of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour and welfare of zoo-housed gorillas

    Contributor(s):: Wells, D. L., Hepper, P. G., Coleman, D., Challis, M. G.

    Olfactory stimulation has been shown to influence the behaviour of a wide variety of species and is now considered a useful form of environmental enrichment for many captive animals. To date, the effect of odour introduction on the behaviour of primates has been subject to little attention. This...

  12. A note on the influence of visitors on the behaviour and welfare of zoo-housed gorillas

    Contributor(s):: Wells, D. L.

    Visitors to zoos can be a source of potential stress to some captive-housed primates. To date, the effect of the human audience on the welfare of captive gorillas has been overlooked. This study thus examined the behaviour of six zoo-housed gorillas during periods of both high and low visitor...

  13. A note on the influence of visual conspecific contact on the behaviour of sheltered dogs

    Contributor(s):: Wells, D. L., Hepper, P. G.

    The effects of visual contact with other dogs on the behaviour of dogs housed in a rescue shelter were examined. 407 dogs were studied: 212 dogs were housed in cages that allowed for visual contact with dogs in opposite pens; 195 dogs were deprived of visual contact with other dogs by being...

  14. A note on the time budget and social behaviour of densely housed horses: a case study in Arab breeding mares

    Contributor(s):: Benhajali, H., Richard-Yris, M. A., Leroux, M., Ezzaouia, M., Charfi, F., Hausberger, M.

    We observed a high-density herd (200 mares/ha) of 44 Arab breeding mares, while in a bare paddock in Tunisia. Twenty-minute animal focal samples and scan sampling were used to determine the time budget of the mares during the period from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. and study their social behaviour. The data...

  15. A note on variations in pig blood temperature measured at exsanguination

    Contributor(s):: Brown, S. N., Knowles, T. G., Wilkins, L. J., Pope, S. J., Kettlewell, P. J., Chadd, S. A., Warriss, P. D.

    This study investigated the temperature of pigs' blood as it flowed from the sticking wound at exsanguination using infra-red thermometry and how it might reflect changes in core body temperature. A total of 417 pigs were monitored over a three-day period, which included a subset of 206 pigs for...

  16. A note: the effects of human handling on heart girth, behaviour and milk quality in dairy goats

    Contributor(s):: Jackson, K. M. A., Hackett, D.

    Research on cattle, lambs and pigs suggests that when animals do not receive positive physical attention ("gentling") from their stockpersons, they become fearful, stressed, less productive, and less healthy overall. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects that positive human...

  17. A novel method for testing social recognition in young pigs and the modulating effects of relocation

    Contributor(s):: Souza, A. S., Jansen, J., Tempelman, R. J., Mendl, M., Zanella, A. J.

    Mixing litters of pigs often leads to short- or long-lasting aggression. As social recognition (SR) is important for the development and maintenance of stable social groups, a lack or disruption of SR could prolong agonistic interactions and reduce welfare. Investigations of SR abilities are...

  18. A novel operant conditioning test to determine whether dairy cows dislike passageways that are dark or covered with excreta

    Contributor(s):: Phillips, C. J. C., Morris, I. D.

    Seven dairy cows were trained to recognize the quantity of reward offered in a transparent tube containing molasses in a Y-maze. Only one cow failed to consistently select the aisle containing the larger reward. The cows were then individually offered the choice of traversing either a passageway...

  19. A pilot investigation of Farm Assurance assessors' attitude to farm animal welfare as a confounding factor to training in pig welfare outcome measures

    Contributor(s):: Mullan, S., Edwards, S. A., Butterworth, A., Whay, H. R., Main, D. C. J.

    The effect of Farm Assurance (FA) assessors' attitude to farm animal welfare on the inter-observer reliability of some welfare outcome measures achieved following training was investigated as part of a larger project examining the feasibility and benefits of the incorporation of some on-farm...

  20. A pilot investigation of possible positive system descriptors in finishing pigs

    Contributor(s):: Mullan, S., Edwards, S. A., Butterworth, A., Whay, H. R., Main, D. C. J.

    In this study, pig producers were identified whose practices exceeded the basic legal requirements and government recommendations for pig welfare. This novel approach was part of a larger project investigating the feasibility and benefits of the inclusion of some animalbased welfare outcome...